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  1. dw1305

    New Fert Time and Confused... (Sulphur Levels?)

    Hi all, I think, in that case, that the lack of magnesium (Mg) will manifest as a problem long before lack of sulphur (S). My guess is that it would be difficult to pin down which element was lacking, because "Epsom Salts" would supply both options. cheers Darrel
  2. dw1305

    New Fert Time and Confused... (Sulphur Levels?)

    Hi all, I think that is probably mainly a theoretical concern, every-one with a planted tank is going to add magnesium, and my guess is 99% of them will use magnesium sulphate in the form of "Epsom Salts" (MgSO4.7H2O). My thought would be that they just don't list it, rather than it being...
  3. dw1305

    Iron deficiency and which chelator do I need?

    Hi all, I think the difference is between "passive uptake", <"which occurs all the time"> and is driven by the concentration gradient across the plant cell membranes, and <"active uptake">, which is driven by photosynthesis. cheers Darrel
  4. dw1305

    Cobalt and Nickel

    Hi all, This should be interesting. cheers Darrel
  5. dw1305

    JBL ferropol

    Hi all, I'd start there as well. The real advantage of dry salts is that they work out a lot cheaper than any <"commercial liquid fertilisers">. When a soluble compound goes into solution it becomes "ions", and it is only then that it becomes available to the plant. Every ion of an element...
  6. dw1305

    Brown fuzzy algae, unhealthy plants and dosing questions

    Hi all, Yes, but it is just a <"ball-park figure">. With most of the trace (micro) elements the difference is really just between <"some" and "none">. cheers Darrel
  7. dw1305

    Brown fuzzy algae, unhealthy plants and dosing questions

    Hi all, You could try 1/4 EI or the <"Duckweed Index">. I like Limnobium laevigatum (Amazon Frogbit) as my <"Duckweed">, have a look a these two threads <"Duckweed Index says......"> and <"Frogbit taken a turn......">. Apologies to @jameson_uk as I see these are both his threads. You still...
  8. dw1305

    Brown fuzzy algae, unhealthy plants and dosing questions

    Hi all, That looks like you might have some iron (Fe) issues, are you using the FeDTPA? cheers Darrel
  9. dw1305

    Yellowing frogbit: need to dose more?

    Hi all, I'm none the wiser either, there is definitely something not quite right, but I'm not sure what. cheers Darrel
  10. dw1305

    Moving from AIO to EI - Final check before ordering

    Hi all, That would be my recommendation. It covers you for all the elements and should mean that you don't leave the "Goldilocks zone." cheers Darrel
  11. dw1305

    Moving from AIO to EI - Final check before ordering

    Hi all, <"FeDTPA is fine">. It is actually a better chelator for harder water than FeEDTA. It is just a matter of amounts, plants need all <"fourteen of the mineral nutrients"> but for most of the micro-elements the difference is between "some" and "none", that is why they are sometimes...
  12. dw1305

    Moving from AIO to EI - Final check before ordering

    Hi all, Rather than using the TENSO cocktail as an iron (Fe) source, I'd use a separate iron chelate (FeEDTA should be OK), that means that you aren't adding a lot of excess zinc (Zn) etc. cheers Darrel
  13. dw1305

    Using high and low ferts alternating

    Hi all, If you do want to limit your input of fertilisers you can use an approach that uses the <"health and colour of a floating plant"> as an indication of when to add nutrients. I've called it the <"Duckweed Index">. cheers Darrel
  14. dw1305

    Toby's Urea Fertilizer?

    Hi all, I've been thinking about this, and I think Clive is right, the potential source of uncertainty is the rate at which urea is catalysed to ammonia <"by urease">, and both that rate, and the fate of the ammonia hydrolysed, are going to have lots of potential variables, like: Nature of the...
  15. dw1305

    Micro mixture going cloudy ?

    Hi all, I wouldn't use tap water, even if it really soft, because it will have added orthophosphate. Using rainwater, or RO, gets around this. This one <"has come up before"> also via @X3NiTH . It is different in the UK, from much of the <"USA, for geological reasons">. Have a look at...
  16. dw1305

    Cobalt and Nickel

    Hi all, Plants have a cobalt (Co) and nickel (Ni) requirement. Nickel is essential for plant growth, <"they aren't sure about cobalt">. One of the problems is that you are talking about a requirement in ppb (10^-9), so my guess would be that you could only effectively exclude them by using...
  17. dw1305

    What PPM does this add?

    Hi all, I use "4" as well, but it is easy enough to work out accurately, nitrogen is 100% N, but nitrate (NO3) also has three oxygen atoms as well. To work out the percentage nitrogen we need to divide the RAM of N (14), by the RMM of NO3 , which is 14 + (3 * 16) = 62 and 22.7% N. So one...
  18. dw1305

    Toby's Urea Fertilizer?

    Hi all, @jaypeecee, I think @Zeus. has been dosing about 1/2 EI levels of nitrogen (N) as urea via a dosing pump? So as a continual trickle rather than as a series of "lumps". cheers Darrel
  19. dw1305

    Salts Solubility levels!

    Hi all, It just makes sense. I'm not saying that you can't be successful with Jeweler's scales etc. but I'm <"pretty slapdash"> and know where my limitations are. cheers Darrel
  20. dw1305

    Salts Solubility levels!

    Hi all, Yes, you would need to re-heat the solution every time before you used it, to ensure that all the salts were in solution. You would also need to ensure that you made good any evaporation with RO water. Yes, that is another issue. It is the <"Common Ion Effect">. Have a look at the...
  21. dw1305

    Brown fuzzy algae, unhealthy plants and dosing questions

    Hi all, That will put your pH well over pH7 (assuming dGH and dKH are linked), so that means you need FeEDDHA or FeDTPA as a chelator. Have a look at iron chelates for house-plants, rather than aquariums. Because horticulture is a big industry in the Netherlands I'm pretty sure there will be...
  22. dw1305

    Brown fuzzy algae, unhealthy plants and dosing questions

    Hi all, You can use the nutrient <"Dosing Calculator">, you want to aim for about 0.5 ppm Fe. Have a look at this <"threads links">, which chelator you need depends upon how hard (dKH) your water is. I use soft (rain) water, so can use FeEDTA as a chelator, but if you have harder water you...
  23. dw1305

    Brown fuzzy algae, unhealthy plants and dosing questions

    Hi all, You'll need to add it separately. Iron is a bit different to most of the other nutrients in that we have to add it as a chelate to stop it forming insoluble compounds. cheers Darrel
  24. dw1305

    Brown fuzzy algae, unhealthy plants and dosing questions

    Hi all, Welcome, they may be <"filamentous diatoms">. I'm not sure about the ammonia reading, but I think the Rotala issues are due to lack of available iron (Fe). Iron deficiency symptoms look really common in <"Rotala rotundifolia">, have a look at the linked thread and links. cheers Darrel
  25. dw1305

    Unopened old bottle of trace elements

    Hi all, Thanks @ian_m, I was going to have a look through the various trace element mixes this morning, but I think we need to look no further. The "sodium free" bit just means that ammonium (NH4+), or potassium (K+) were the <"originally chelated ions"> A thought occurs that all @Fred Dulley...
  26. dw1305

    Unopened old bottle of trace elements

    Hi all, I'm pretty sure the iron will be chelated. I'd be absolutely amazed if this wasn't a <"=1057,1071,1097,1780']commercial trace element mix"> rebranded. cheers Darrel
  27. dw1305

    Tropica specialised

    Hi all, That looks good for a week from set-up. I'd just do that, plant health looks fine, as they grow you might find you need to add a bit more. cheers Darrel
  28. dw1305

    Toby's Urea Fertilizer?

    Hi all, I assume that is to cover them, just because of the <"toxicity of ammonia (NH3)"> when it forms a larger proportion of the TAN. I'm hoping that @Zeus.'s urea experiment is going to tell us. I've tended to equate the toxicity of urea with that of ammonia, but that will over-estimate...
  29. dw1305

    Aquarium Plant Fertilizers - Sources of Nitrogen

    Hi all, It is an interesting thread, although it goes a bit wonky <"after page 12">. cheers Darrel
  30. dw1305

    Aquarium Plant Fertilizers - Sources of Nitrogen

    Hi all, There is some discussion of this in <"Pot scape">. Personally I wouldn't use the urea intended for "de-icing", but any fertiliser grade you should be absolutely fine. You get a lot of <"bang for your buck"> using urea, so you don't have to add much and any impurities will be in ppb...
  31. dw1305

    Terrestrial plant fertiliser

    Hi all, I'd agree about dangers of using <"mixes with ammonia in them">, but "Miracle Gro" is incredibly cheap. If any-one is interested in the ingredients they are: I actually bought 1200g <"for £4 last time>, because it was a "larger pack, same price" promotion (still available at that...
  32. dw1305

    Terrestrial plant fertiliser

    Hi all, We have a couple of <"Miracle Gro threads">, but this one formulation has more ammonia, possibly because ammonium sulphate ((NH₄)₂SO₄) will reduce pH. cheers Darrel
  33. dw1305

    CaSO4 sources, what am I getting?

    Hi all, Not really, the hemihydrate will become the dihydrate on the way to dissolving. You get quite a big release of heat (the reaction is exothermic) as the bigger crystals form. Neither form is very soluble (both have solubilities of only about 2.5g in a litre), the slight difference is...
  34. dw1305

    Very hard water EI Dosing

    Hi all, Scuppered, I'd convinced myself the damage to the Amazon Swords <"was Plec damage">. cheers Darrel
  35. dw1305

    Very hard water EI Dosing

    Hi all, Do you have a Bristlenose (Ancistrus sp.)? cheers Darrel
  36. dw1305

    CaSO4 sources, what am I getting?

    Hi all, The hemihydrate is what we call "Plaster of Paris", it is a white powder, if you mix it with a small amount of water it will set as a white solid, but will eventually go into solution. The dihydrate is "Gypsum" which will go into solution. It is a translucent crystal. I'd be surprised...
  37. dw1305

    Very hard water EI Dosing

    Hi all, Near enough. They are likely to <"be similar values"> to one another, mainly because the dGH and dKH both come from dissolved chalk (CaCO3) and that supplies 1 : 1 dKH : dGH. The dKH test doesn't actually measure dKH, it measures alkalinity and I'm not sure how the dGH test works. You...
  38. dw1305

    Very hard water EI Dosing

    Hi all, It is only really the iron chelator that maybe sub-optimal in your hard water, I'll add @Zeus. as he can tell you more. It doesn't tell you a lot, they've only put in the compounds and elements that they are obliged to by law (which is why they quote all those pesticides). The ammonium...
  39. dw1305

    Relationship between TDS and unused ferts

    Hi all, Checking whether your tank water has continually rising TDS. If it does you probably need to add less fertiliser or change a bit more water. cheers Darrel
  40. dw1305

    EI Dosing Sanity Check

    Hi all, So do you have 4dKH fluid in the drop checker? cheers Darrel
  41. dw1305

    EI Dosing Sanity Check

    Hi all, Welcome, I'm not a CO2 (or EI user), but I'll have a go at the question. Do you have a drop checker? You can't really use the dKH/pH chart to give you a CO2 value. It works <"in the drop checker">, but not really otherwise. Yes or potassium chloride (KCl) etc. or swap the KH2PO4 for...
  42. dw1305

    Quick question about MgSO4

    Hi all, Yes it will be. You can actually <"use it as a desiccant">. It is quite difficult to stop it picking up atmospheric moisture and requires you to put it in a desiccator (while it is still very hot) to keep it in anhydrous. You will have to do it the other way around, weigh out 100g...
  43. dw1305

    Quick question about MgSO4

    Hi all, Yes, there is a lot of <"good stuff"> on the <"Lenntech website">. I've used it a lot for for pretty much anything <"water treatment related">. I do a bit of <"bucket chemistry"> so I have a spreadsheet with a periodic table embedded etc, but I'll probably make more use of the <"IFC...
  44. dw1305

    Quick question about MgSO4

    Hi all, It does. You can only keep the salt dry (anhydrous) by heating it (to about 300 oC) and then storing it in water free conditions (in a plastic bag in, the freezer?) before it cools. If it has access to the atmosphere <"it will revert to the heptahydrate form"> or "Epsom Salts". I'd...
  45. dw1305

    IFC Aquarium Fertilizer Calculator

    Hi all, No, it is back to the <"powers of 10">. I'm frequently <"lost in them">. Try the Rotala Butterfly calculator again, but put in "dry dosing" and "0.246g" of K2CO3. It is just more straightforward that way. Your extra 100 (10^2) comes from the 200 mL "container size" and the 2 mL...
  46. dw1305

    Ca:Mg:K Ratio

    Hi all, I agree they <"don't need to be linked">. In terms of calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) plants have a fairly small requirement, but much of the worlds fresh water <"has them"> (and particularly Ca) in great abundance. I'm not sure the that the calcium : magnesium ration is that...
  47. dw1305

    Ca:Mg:K Ratio

    Hi all, This is just fantastic, you have done more than <"just deskill potion making">. In fact I'm now worried that shadowy figures are going to appear at your door one night, make you an offer you can't refuse and tell you that if you don't stop this <"you will be sleeping with your...
  48. dw1305

    NilocG powdered fert product discussion

    Hi all, I've got a bit more reading for you I'm afraid. There isn't <"a single answer">, it is a mixture of factors. The plants themselves take up ammonium (NH4+), nitrite (NO2-) and nitrate (NO3-), Any ammonium that doesn't enter <"microbial nitrification"> reduces the <"Biochemical Oxygen...
  49. dw1305

    EasyLife ProFito dosage for (quite) densely planted tank

    Hi all, I don't think that they are unrealistic values, but wouldn't start from set goals for nutrient levels. I'd start from the end (plant growth) and work back. To remove CO2 and light from the equation I'm going to use <"a floating plant as my "Canary">. I'd use plant growth as an...
  50. dw1305

    NilocG powdered fert product discussion

    Hi all, <"Difficult to say from the photos">, but I'm going to assume you have hard water? and that makes iron (Fe) deficiency more likely. Have a look at @Craig Matthews , <"FeEDDHA"> thread. cheers Darrel
  51. dw1305

    Relationship between TDS and unused ferts

    Hi all, I use a <"conductivity datum range">, in conjunction with the <"Duckweed Index">, but I'm adding probably <"an order of magnitude less nutrients"> than I would be if I used EI. Because I'm not adding many nutrients, and I'm using a 90 : 10 mix of rainwater : hard tap water in the...
  52. dw1305

    Relationship between TDS and unused ferts

    Hi all, It just means that there are more ions, but when you add a salt like MgSO4.7H2O, you are adding sulphur (S) (the sulphate ion SO4--) as well as Mg++. The amount you add will be many times the sulphur requirement of your plants. We can limit the excess of "spare ions" by adding salts...
  53. dw1305

    EasyLife ProFito dosage for (quite) densely planted tank

    Hi all, You should be able to find <"horticultural trace element mixes"> designed for use with hydroponics. This is the list from the IFC micronutrient sheet cheers Darrel
  54. dw1305

    EasyLife ProFito dosage for (quite) densely planted tank

    Hi all, The problem isn't with the dosing, it is with the fertiliser. What you have is <"just a micronutrient (trace element) source">, that just happens to have trace levels of potassium (K) in it. The Rotala Butterfly calculator uses the iron (Fe) addition to work out how much of a trace...
  55. dw1305

    Converting% Ratios in Fertilizers to Ppm

    Hi all, Thank you, I'll be honest a lot of it developed over time because I'm <"not a very good fish-keeper">, or <"very conscientious"> at tank maintenance, and like to follow the <"path of least resistance">. This has partially been because I have tanks in places where <"I can't easily...
  56. dw1305

    Converting% Ratios in Fertilizers to Ppm

    Hi all, That is the truth, understanding how all the <"moving bits"> line up is <"incredibly difficult">, and if anyone tells you <"they fully understand the processes"> that occur in the tank, or that theirs is the only way, they are probably mistaken. I'm not <"a CO2"> or <"EI user">, so I...
  57. dw1305

    Converting% Ratios in Fertilizers to Ppm

    Hi all, It is just the way the values are quoted. One is as nitrogen (N) and the the other is as nitrate (NO3-). Nitrogen is, unsurprisingly, 100% N, but NO3 is only 14/62 = 22.6% N (The other 78.4% of NO3 is the three oxygen (O) atoms) and 100/22.6 = 4.43 So if you multiply 1.61 ppm N by...
  58. dw1305

    Converting% Ratios in Fertilizers to Ppm

    Hi all, They are both right and both the same. You can always check using the calculation method in <"the earlier post">. It is just that the IFC calculator has rounded the value to two decimal places and expressed phosphorus (P) as phosphate (PO4---) and nitrogen as nitrate (NO3-). Element...
  59. dw1305

    Converting% Ratios in Fertilizers to Ppm

    Hi all, That makes it really easy, the percentage on the bottle is the same as the ppm of each nutrient supplied, because the various dilutions are all factors of 10 and cancel one another out. Yes, so we have nitrogen (N) and we want to convert that to a nitrate (NO3-) value, bearing in mind...
  60. dw1305

    Opinions for root tabs

    Hi all, That is a useful reference. cheers Darrel
  61. dw1305

    Opinions for root tabs

    Hi all, Slower the better really. Yes, I think that is probably right, even the slowest release formulation of Osmocote will still go into solution fairly rapidly. Dependent upon the substrates CEC you may get retention of the ions with higher valency (Ca++ etc.) in the substrate, but...
  62. dw1305

    Apfuk dosing with very hard water

    Hi all, Dose alongside. You can either add it separately or mix it with the micro-mix. Have a look at @Zeus.'s post in <"100+ppm calcium....">. This is the NERC document for the <"Magnesian Limestone"> aquifer. cheers Darrel
  63. dw1305

    Apfuk dosing with very hard water

    Hi all, Plant health doesn't look too bad, you look like you may have some interveinal chlorosis, on the new leaves, which would suggest there may be iron issues. Certainly is, both hard and salty (conductivity ~1000 microS (1 milliS)). You have a lot of magnesium (Mg), which is unusual for...
  64. dw1305

    Aquarium Plants - Day/Night Cycle - Nutrient Uptake

    Hi all, I thought I had, but I think I posted this in the <"wrong (the linked) thread">. cheers Darrel
  65. dw1305

    Apfuk dosing with very hard water

    Hi all, That is really hard water, your hardness isn't just calcium carbonate (CaCO3), you have some other salts as well, from the <"Magnesian Limestone Aquifer">. It is only really iron (Fe) that is a problem in very hard water and <"needs to be chelated">. I think FeDTPA should be all right...
  66. dw1305

    Issues with dry salts?

    Hi all, That <"sounds like it might be a magnesium (Mg)"> deficiency. Our tap water doesn't contain <"much magnesium for geological reasons"> when compared to the USA. Because there are a lot of <"different options for nutrient deficiency">, particularly for mobile nutrients, I just add...
  67. dw1305

    Issues with dry salts?

    Hi all, I'm pleased it was useful. Have a look at <"Duckweed Index says Nitrogen">, that thread has pictures that show the effects of iron (Fe) deficiency and plant recovery. If the new leaves on the plants are dark green? It isn't an iron issue and adding a bit more of everything should...
  68. dw1305

    Ca:Mg:K Ratio

    Hi all, My guess is that you would need to <"add more potassium (K) long term">. There is quite a lot of <"work on hydroponic crops">, and I don't see why aquarium plants should be any different. Plants don't actually need much calcium (Ca), but many of them would have evolved in water with...
  69. dw1305

    IFC Aquarium Fertilizer Calculator

    Hi all, It might not work very well as a door wedge, but it will look lovely..................and you could always alternate it with a <"big bottle of ADA Brighty N">. cheers Darrel
  70. dw1305

    IFC Aquarium Fertilizer Calculator

    Hi all, I'm not saying that I have an anti-Apple bias, but every time anyone comes to see me with a Mac problem (usually involving XQuartz and R) I hide under the desk. I know it isn't very professional, but honestly it is the best option for both of us. So I think your problem is that you...
  71. dw1305

    Potassium Chloride KCL

    Hi all, Unfortunately @JamesC no longer <"visits the forum">, but he still has his, very useful, website, <"James' Planted Tank">. Chloride (Cl-) is an interesting one, because a lot of "fresh" water has some influence from sea water, and full strength sea water has about 17,000 ppm Cl-...
  72. dw1305

    Will APFUK starter kit suit my needs?? 4 Month update with pics

    H all, It doesn't have to be rain-water, you can use the same approach for RO or tap, you just have a <"different initial datum range">. Conductivity meters are really useful, because conductivity <"is a linear scale"> from pure H2O at 0 microS up to seawater at ~53000 microS (53 milliS). It...
  73. dw1305

    Will APFUK starter kit suit my needs?? 4 Month update with pics

    Hi all, There is a way of avoiding the maths. I'd just use a conductivity meter, find a range of approx. +/- 25 microS, where your fish and plants are happy, and then use that rather than adding a set amount of salts. I aim for 80 - 120 microS in the tanks using rain-water and a dash of tap...
  74. dw1305

    TNC Complete

    Hi all, That is a lot of it. People can argue about the merits of differing lights, filters etc., but it is different for nutrients. If you have a look at the <"Nutrient Calculator"> that @Zeus., @Hanuman, @fablau & @X3NiTH have developed <"it lays bare"> just what <"an incredible mark up">...
  75. dw1305

    Aquarium Plant Fertilizers - Sources of Nitrogen

    Hi all, That one is from Uganda, but I don't know how it would relate to the EU standard. cheers Darrel
  76. dw1305

    Aquarium Plant Fertilizers - Sources of Nitrogen

    Hi all, There is some discussion of impurities in urea in the <"biuret posts">. If the urea is fertiliser grade it should be fine, but I'd steer well clear of any sold as a de-icer. They are pretty leaky all over, the roots don't have have as many obvious "holes" but they are continually...
  77. dw1305

    Aquarium Plant Fertilizers - Sources of Nitrogen

    Hi all, Plants are a bit different to animals, they are much leakier structures, so there is less of a clear differentiation between "inside" and "outside". They need to be full of spaces, so that gases can diffuse in and out, and a lot of the internal space is filled up with lacunae "holes"...
  78. dw1305

    Aquarium Plant Fertilizers - Sources of Nitrogen

    Hi all, Yes, I think so. The chemical reaction, which urease catalyses, is: CO(NH2)2 + H2O → CO2 + 2NH3 Yes again, I must admit I've looked on ammonia and urea as having much the same risk involved, which I should have known isn't really right (<"from your link">). I thought that the liquid...
  79. dw1305

    DIY Macro Solution Problems

    Hi all, I'm pretty sure that potassium (K+) is always plant available, just because all the compounds of alkali (group 1) metals are soluble. cheers Darrel
  80. dw1305

    Will APFUK starter kit suit my needs?? 4 Month update with pics

    Hi all, They will take a while to dissolve, as you suggest it is size issue and means you have a much greater volume to surface area ratio than you would with a smaller crystal. It won't stop them dissolving, they will just take longer. Volume is a cubic ^3 measurement, so a slightly bigger...
  81. dw1305

    Salts Solubility levels!

    Hi all, You could try <"warming it up and stirring">, you normally have to do that to get anywhere near the solubility limit. Yes. cheers Darrel
  82. dw1305

    Will APFUK starter kit suit my needs?? 4 Month update with pics

    Hi all, Yes <"they go together">. <"E202" is potassium sorbate"> and E300 "Ascorbic acid (vitamin C)". I see that @Hufsa has posted this while I've been typing. cheers Darrel
  83. dw1305

    Will APFUK starter kit suit my needs?? 4 Month update with pics

    Hi all, No, that is definitely a proper answer, it must have taken you a while. I'm now expecting the rest of the forum to raise their game to at least this level.;) cheers Darrel
  84. dw1305

    EI Dosing Levels

    Hi all, It depends how hard your water is. If your water has a high pH and carbonate hardness you may need <"FeEDDHA"> or FeDTPA as your iron chelate. Originally I used Duckeed (Lemna minor) as my floating plant (hence the "Duckweed Index"), but I agree it does have a number of issues. These...
  85. dw1305

    EI Dosing Levels

    Hi all, No, it is just down to the greater likelihood of <"solubility issues"> in alkaline (high dGH & high dKH) water. Because you have more OH-, Ca++ and HCO3- ions in hard water, there is a greater likelihood of insoluble compounds forming. Examples would be <"calcium phosphate"...
  86. dw1305

    New Tank Tropica Dosing Advice

    Hi all, I haven't kept Nerites, because I have soft water. Same for me <"Red Ramshorn (Planorbella duryi)">, Malaysian Trumpet (Melanoides tuberculata) and Tadpole Snails (Physella acuta). I also have a couple of crustaceans Asellus aquaticus and <"Crangonyx pseudogracilis">. cheers Darrel
  87. dw1305

    New Tank Tropica Dosing Advice

    Hi all, I'm not trying to be funny, but it just looks lovely and natural, think of it as the <"highly beneficial periphyton">. Green algae are problematic to get rid of, because they have the same <"photosynthetic pigments and photosystems"> as all the higher plants. Which means if conditions...
  88. dw1305

    Yellowing frogbit: need to dose more?

    Hi all, I bet, my wife is a teacher, for the last couple of years she has been mainly working as a TA, but in 2020 a lot more time has been as a teacher and a lot less as a TA. Try @AverageWhiteBloke 's suggestion, the plants look OK and a bit of extra Mg isn't going to do any harm. Your...
  89. dw1305

    Could my plants be browning due to phosphate?

    Hi all, Another <"type of snail"> is more likely to <"venture onto the leaves">. I don't keep Nerites (I use rain-water and it isn't hard enough for Nerites) but I think they stick much more to hard surfaces. cheers Darrel
  90. dw1305

    Dosing Question

    Hi all, Apologies as well. The analysis on your water, done by the lab., will give you accurate values for that day. This is because it has used <"ICP/MS"> and spectrophotometry as analytical methods. However, "on the day" is relevant, because as @Zeus. noted, your water is quite variable...
  91. dw1305

    K2CO3 (Potassium carbonate) Dosing

    Hi all, You need to work out how much potassium (K) (mg/L) is in 1mL of your stock solution first. Your compound is 55.77% potassium, which means that 50g contains 27.89g of potassium. I'm going to assume you made the solution up to 500mL (weight water + K2CO3)? for the moment. If you added...
  92. dw1305

    Will APFUK starter kit suit my needs?? 4 Month update with pics

    Hi all, Definitive proof. cheers Darrel
  93. dw1305

    Will APFUK starter kit suit my needs?? 4 Month update with pics

    Hi all, Useful, it just means that your water is pretty much fully saturated with Ca++ and HCO3- ions, and that <"you have about 16 dGH and 16 dKH">. I'd just use the <"Rotala Butterfly nutrient calculator"> (workings below four dosings a week to give you EI nutrient levels), all the salts...
  94. dw1305

    Does dosing with nitrogen raise nitrates?

    Hi all, That is it. It is the same N (nitrogen atom) in <"urea (CO(NH2))2">, ammonia (NH3/NH4+), nitrite (NO2-) and nitrate (NO3-), just combined into different compounds. We don't know at exactly what <"level NO3 becomes toxic to fish"> (and it is going to depend on the fish), but we do...
  95. dw1305

    Dosing Question

    Hi all, Can you find out how they've reported the NO3 level? Sometimes it is quoted as the ppm of nitrogen (N) contained in the nitrate (NO3-), in which case the the 17ppm N would be pretty close to the 60 - 80 ppm NO3. There is a more detailed answer in <"Which NO3......">. Having said that...
  96. dw1305

    DIY Macro Solution Problems

    Hi all, I wonder if it isn't a pure salt, but either <"di-potassium, or potassium di-hydrogen, phosphate"> mixed with <"triple super phosphate"> (Ca(H₂PO₄)₂ .H₂O)? cheers Darrel
  97. dw1305

    Will APFUK starter kit suit my needs?? 4 Month update with pics

    Hi all, Looks likely. cheers Darrel
  98. dw1305

    Will APFUK starter kit suit my needs?? 4 Month update with pics

    Hi all, Yes, that should be plenty of NO3, even the minimum value (which will be sometime in the winter) is pretty high. Yes. There is a slight difference in the % percentage pf potassium, the RAM of K is 39.1 and the RMM of KNO3 is 101 and it is 39% K. For KCl the RMM is 74.5 and it is...
  99. dw1305

    Nutrient Dosing Calculator

    Hi all, The easiest way to tailor the dosing to your particular situation is to use a <"conductivity meter"> (TDS meter) to monitor whether your conductivity (ions in solution) is rising. If conductivity is continually rising nutrients are accumulating and you need to change a bit more water...
  100. dw1305

    Will APFUK starter kit suit my needs?? 4 Month update with pics

    Hi all, No, you don't. There <"is a kit">, but it is actually quite difficult to measure <"potassium (K) levels colormetrically">, because of the <"solubility of potassium salts">. Measurement is very straightforward with any of <"Flame Photometry, Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) or...
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