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  1. dw1305

    What light for a 120x36x24 (l,w,h inches) tank ?

    Hi all, Yes, 5000K is fine. It is "Cool White". I actually quite like it as a colour temperature, it is a little bit warmer than day-light (~6500K) I'll add in @oreo57 and he can give you his opinion. cheers Darrel
  2. dw1305

    What light for a 120x36x24 (l,w,h inches) tank ?

    Hi all, Yes, that sort of thing. Because of the size of the tank I was looking more at <"Hi Bay" lighting for warehouses etc>. cheers Darrel
  3. dw1305

    What light for a 120x36x24 (l,w,h inches) tank ?

    Hi all, I'd definitely use LED floodlights, anything else is going to prove really expensive. I'll add in @Filip Krupa. cheers Darrel
  4. dw1305

    Lighting duration

    Hi all, I do and for the same reason as @Christel, in nature many of our plants get <"approx. 12 hours of incredibly bright tropical sunlight">. There are proviso's I've never kept a tank with added CO2, and I always have a <"very large plant mass">, meaning that Anubias & Bolbitis etc...
  5. dw1305

    New lights for planted discus tank

    Hi all, I've had one or two I've bought pre-owned where the unit has been sealed. Best of luck with the Iquatics unit. cheers Darrel
  6. dw1305

    The Importance Of Light Spectrum

    Hi all, These, from the paper you referenced <"Blue light reduces.....">: Light absorption spectra of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (black line) and the green alga C. sorokiniana 211-8K (grey line) acclimated to 35 µmol photons m−2 s−1 white light. cheers Darrel
  7. dw1305

    The Importance Of Light Spectrum

    Hi all, I still can't see where there is enough difference between the two light absorption curves? The green algae are photosynthetically identical to higher plants (the form a clade <"the "Viridiplantae")>, so that would be the same for higher plant, fern or moss. cheers Darrel
  8. dw1305

    The Importance Of Light Spectrum

    Hi all, What about light intensity? (From <"Blue light reduces photosynthetic efficiency of cyanobacteria through an imbalance between photosystems I and II">) You would need a PAR meter and also to have enough light for your plants and too little for your BGA. I'm going to assume this the...
  9. dw1305

    New lights for planted discus tank

    Hi all, I'm not familiar with these units, but it is almost certainly the electronic ballast that has failed and you should be able to get a replacement ballast (<"Tridonic or similar">) for less than £30 and replace it yourself. cheers Darrel
  10. dw1305

    The Importance Of Light Spectrum

    Hi all. We don't have access to antibiotics in most of Europe, which I see as a <"plus point for human health">, even if it restricts what we can put in our aquariums. That would be my thought as well. It is back to the same sun over the last 4.5 billion years and <"the likelihood that all...
  11. dw1305

    Week Aqua RGB-UV

    Hi all, I'll add in @oreo57, he may be your best hope for an informed comment. cheers Darrel
  12. dw1305

    Kessil schedule

    Hi all, Welcome, do you have a picture of the tank? We have a few keepers of Discus in planted tanks. I'll cc. in @REDSTEVEO, and we also have a few <"Kessil Tuna Sun users">. I'll add @Geoffrey Rea and @alto . cheers Darrel
  13. dw1305

    Juwel Helialux LED vs SPECTRUM

    Hi all, Welcome to the forum. It would depend a little bit on what the plants were? But my guess would be that it wasn't entirely light related. I use a simple technique, <"that takes both light and CO2 availability out of the equation">, and then you know that any growth problems that are...
  14. dw1305

    Best LED

    Hi all, My guess is that, at least some of them, can. It is back to the <"one-legged Irishman"> argument. Because fixed nitrogen is was both rare, and tends to be patchy, in the natural environment having ammonia/um (NH3/NH4+) as a trigger for growth from a resting spore would make sense...
  15. dw1305

    Best LED

    Hi all, You definitely tend to get more green algae in alkaline conditions in the "wild". cheers Darrel
  16. dw1305

    Best LED

    Hi all, The pdf says that it doesn't control Chara or Nitella or anything more "planty" then them. cheers Darrel
  17. dw1305

    Best LED

    Hi all, They are a Dutch Company and I think it is used a lot more in Continental Europe. I had a feeling that it had been used somewhere locally to me, possibly this one <"by Bournemouth Water">. This is the <"link for AL50">. cheers Darrel
  18. dw1305

    Best LED

    Hi all, One for you I think @jaypeecee? <"Ultrasonic irradiation for blue-green algae control">. I have no idea what it does to higher plants. cheers Darrel
  19. dw1305

    Best LED

    Hi all, Yes, @oreo57 is right, you need <"all fourteen"> of the essential mineral nutrients for plant growth, but some of them <"must be in minute amounts">. cheers Darrel
  20. dw1305

    Best LED

    Hi all, I think the problem really lies with the term "algae" and imagining that there is one trigger for a grouping of organisms <"that covers every form of photosynthetic organism">. If you look at the phylogeny of the photosynthetic organisms you can see that the <"Green Algae and Higher...
  21. dw1305

    Best LED

    Hi all, You used to be able to buy entirely blue LED arrays for terrestrial plants. I don't know if any-one has tried one as an aquarium light? cheers Darrel
  22. dw1305

    200L led help

    Hi all, Yes it is blue and white, the light is a bit cold with all the blue LEDs on. I liked the manual controller. Personally I don't want anything to do with WiFi or Bluetooth, it is just another thing that can go wrong. cheers Darrel
  23. dw1305

    200L led help

    Hi all, I've actually just bought one of these, just to have a look at. They aren't very bright, but two would definitely allow you to grow some plants, but probably not a carpet. cheers Darrel
  24. dw1305

    200L led help

    Hi all, Welcome to UKAPS. Have a look at this thread, <"Would I need to bombard a jungle with light?">. Some members have been <"using LED floodlights"> successfully. cheers Darrel
  25. dw1305

    Does plexiglass block a lot of light?

    Hi all, This is the lab. tank with the twin wall polycarbonate cover. Apologies for the quality of the photos. cheers Darrel
  26. dw1305

    Does plexiglass block a lot of light?

    Hi all, I've used 10mm twin-wall polycarbonate roofing sheet, and it works pretty well. You need to seal the cut edges to stop water getting in and allowing algae to grow in the channels. I just taped the edges up with "10mm polycarbonate Sheet Aluminium Sealing Tape", but there must be a...
  27. dw1305

    Reducing T5 lighting

    Hi all, Floating plants, a <"living net curtain"> and <"so much more">. cheers Darrel
  28. dw1305

    LED Settings

    Hi all, I don't regularly put my hands in the tank, but if I do want to do some tank maintenance I scoop all the floating plants out with an aquarium net, and just put them in a bowl with some water. Then, after whatever needs doing in the tank is done, I have a pick through the floating...
  29. dw1305

    LED Settings

    Hi all, Probably won't grow under the Frogbit. You could try some <"airline tubing">. cheers Darrel
  30. dw1305

    LED Settings

    Hi all, It looks OK, but it really needs a good thin. I'd take all the plants out, pick off all the dead leaves and then replace about 1/3 of the plants in the tank. They will fill the "empty" space back in in a few days. cheers Darrel
  31. dw1305

    New tank - Lighting Period / Intensity

    Hi all, It depends upon the plant, but a longer light period with lower light intensity may not actually provide enough <"photosynthetically active radiation"> (PAR) to allow for plant growth. Each plant species (and each leaf on each plant) will have a different <"light compensation point...
  32. dw1305

    Juwel Helilux 920 - Algae Problems

    Hi all, I'm <"a snail fan">, but I know that isn't <"true of everybody">. cheers Darrel
  33. dw1305

    Juwel Helilux 920 - Algae Problems

    Hi all, Ramshorn Snails should eat it. If you aren't adding CO2, you don't need to add as many nutrients, even with the liquid carbon source. Do you have a TDS (conductivity meter)? Do the new leaves on the other plants look pale? If they do, It might be lack of <"plant available iron">. Have a...
  34. dw1305

    Why Are Plants Green? To Reduce the Noise in Photosynthesis.

    Hi all, I think they are mainly stored in the cell vacuole, so that would limit their role in photosynthesis. cheers Darrel
  35. dw1305

    Why Are Plants Green? To Reduce the Noise in Photosynthesis.

    Hi all, Look for <"anthocyanins">, we have a few threads that discuss their role in the leaf. cheers Darrel
  36. dw1305

    New Chihiros RGB Vivid - looks VERY promising

    Hi all, That would be my point as well. cheers Darrel
  37. dw1305

    Photoperiod vs Evening 'Viewing'

    Hi all, I've run a ~thirteen hour day during lock-down without any problems, but I have more plants than normal. Definitely the same for me, floating plants really are the gift that keeps giving, we just need to convince everybody...... And they also <"deter werewolves">. cheers Darrel
  38. dw1305

    T8 advice

    Hi all, That one. cheers Darrel
  39. dw1305

    High photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) and LED dimming (pulse width modulation)

    Hi all, I don't know, but my guess would be that it doesn't make any difference to the plant whether the light is pulsed or continuous. The reason would be that the photosynthetic pigments are intercepting individual photons, so that even a continuous wave light source isn't necessarily...
  40. dw1305

    Questions regarding RGB Lighting

    Hi all, No, it looks like I failed to link <"in the page">. cheers Darrel
  41. dw1305

    Questions regarding RGB Lighting

    Hi all, The Green Algae (Chlorophyta) are the basal group to all the green plants (together they form the clade <Chlorobionta or <"Viridiplantae">) and <"share a common ancestor">, from which they all inherited the same <"basic physiology and photosystems">. In terms of photosynthetic...
  42. dw1305

    Questions regarding RGB Lighting

    Hi all, My guess would be that the wavelength of light isn't a major factor in algae growth. <"Taxonomically algae isn't a very useful term">, so I just think of all photosynthetic organisms as "plants", just some are the "plants you want" and some are "plants you don't want". I'm going to...
  43. dw1305

    Questions regarding RGB Lighting

    Hi all, I'm not sure any-one really knows whether specific light wavelengths stimulate some photosynthetic organisms more than others. Because we only have one sun, and it is likely that <"photosynthesis only evolved once">, my guess would be that all photosynthetic organisms can make use of the...
  44. dw1305

    Questions regarding RGB Lighting

    Hi all, The K value is the colour of the light emitted by an elemental iron (Fe) body heated to that temperature (in degrees Kelvin). I'm not sure what it means on the Fluval graph. cheers Darrel
  45. dw1305

    Lighting to support red plants

    Hi all, There is a lot of good stuff on the forum. I start from the premise that a thread in the right subject area will exist and I can often remember when we've had a relevant post (like in this case). If I can't remember the <"Search function"> is pretty good for most things. You can't...
  46. dw1305

    Lighting to support red plants

    Hi all, We have a thread that might be of interest, <"Whats the secret to keeping red plants red...">. cheers Darrel
  47. dw1305

    LED photosynthesis

    Hi all, It depends on the plant. Mosses, and plants like Bolbitis and Anubias, will have the lowest <"light compensation points (LCP)">. There aren't experimentally defined values for the plants we grow, but if a plant is <"dark green and slow growing"> it is likely to have a low LCP. cheers...
  48. dw1305

    Diy light

    Hi all, They will grow plants without any question. What you will need is a very good heat sink, because 70W of those are going to run pretty hot. cheers Darrel
  49. dw1305

    Advice for newbie

    Hi all, It will be. You'll have to just carry on with the water changes until it declines. All the time the substance is "active" it will keep lowering the dKH and pH, it isn't a problem because we now know that the organisms involved in nitrification in aquarium filters <"are mainly archaea...
  50. dw1305

    Advice for newbie

    Hi all, Plant growth looks good, and I can see your floating plant. No. Are you adding ammonia? (I can see the 2ppm reading in the image) or is that just what is leaching from the substrate? cheers Darrel
  51. dw1305

    Advice for newbie

    Hi all, Yes, that is it, there maybe <"some issues with water testing">. It doesn't sound as scientific as testing the water every day etc., but there are advantages to it. Yes, keep up the water changes. Yes, no ammonia. Nitrification is usually limited by oxygen availability, if you <"get...
  52. dw1305

    Advice for newbie

    Hi all, Cycling is a really contentious issue, where people tend to have embedded "faith" positions. I started advocating "silent cycle", cycling by planting a tank and then ensuring that oxygen levels remained high, before there was any real scientific evidence for why it should work...
  53. dw1305

    Advice for newbie

    Hi all, I am, in fact I was just typing this when your message notification popped up. Don't add any ammonia to the tank, it doesn't help "cycle" the tank and it probably increases the time before the tank becomes stable. Planted tanks are never cycled in the way that tanks which are entirely...
  54. dw1305

    Expensive Lighting?

    Hi all, That is as truth, it is back to Clive's (@ceg4048) immortal description of a canister filter as, fundamentally, a <"pump in a bucket">. I actually like the simplicity and robustness of the ADA filter design (if not particularly the aesthetics) with the Iwaki pump and stainless steel...
  55. dw1305

    Expensive Lighting?

    Hi all, I think the point of it is if you can buy a 20W dimmable LED Cool (or daylight) white <"floodlight"> that grows plants perfectly adequately pretty cheaply, will people buy a light with similar plant growing properties (that might be more aesthetically pleasing and have better color...
  56. dw1305

    Expensive Lighting?

    Hi all, I think prices will carry on falling. That is the question. My guess would be if you looked at the designer clothes market (or @Siege's fishing rods or Binoculars etc ) as a proportion of the total market that would give you some idea of how big the "designer light" market is. cheers...
  57. dw1305

    LED light idea

    Hi all, It will work OK. As @Conort2 says they <"need a frame or similar"> to insert the panel into, and possibly a heat sink as well. You can <"get manual "trailing edge" dimmers for some of these"> types of light panel. cheers Darrel
  58. dw1305

    Oily surface scum on new tank - reducing light

    Hi all, That is an <"Asellus aquaticus">. I have them in the tanks (deliberately), and I like them, but they aren't to <"every-one's taste">. Yes, just keep an eye out for <"Planaria and Hydra">. cheers Darrel
  59. dw1305

    Oily surface scum on new tank - reducing light

    Hi all, That is actually the easy bit, once the plant mass is in active growth and reasonably established you can add the livestock. I like six weeks growing in, and to add the fish fairly slowly, but that is probably a <"fairly cautious approach">. Purely in terms of nitrification, the more...
  60. dw1305

    Oily surface scum on new tank - reducing light

    Hi all, Please stop, it is going to cause all sorts of problems. You plants will take up some of the ammonia, but you aren't short of nutrients and they definitely need any more nitrogen. Planted tanks never need cycling with ammonium and once you've planted them it is definitely going to do...
  61. dw1305

    Lighting a 1 meter deep thank.

    Hi all, Same for me. A 50W cool white LED flood light is going to ~20 euro, and they will be rated IP65 and pretty water-proof. You might be able to do something with <"dimmable panel lights">, if you wanted some control. These are only rated at IP20, so you would need to do some water...
  62. dw1305

    Raised light height but what about intensity?

    Hi all, Raise the light intensity, you may have less than 50% of the light intensity that you had before, due to the <"inverse square law">. cheers Darrel
  63. dw1305

    Lighting for Moss tank

    Hi all, Perfect. I'd have six hours on full power. cheers Darrel
  64. dw1305

    Lighting for Moss tank

    Hi all, You would need to treat the tank much more like a non-planted tank in terms of nitrification etc. If you didn't have any objection to a floating plant? You could use the light on a fairly high intensity and use the floating plant as your "curtain". A floating plant isn't limited by...
  65. dw1305

    Central heating timers

    Hi all, I like a robust mechanical timer as well. cheers Darrel
  66. dw1305

    Excessive Light or Not

    Hi all, I'm not sure. I wouldn't have thought that the (relatively) small difference in colour temperature would have such a significant effect on Diatom growth, but I don't tend to get many Diatoms in the tank. Why do you want to change the light? How is your Blyyxa doing? I tend to have a...
  67. dw1305

    Excessive Light or Not

    Hi all, No. Compact fluorescent tubes are less efficient than linear T5 tubes. cheers Darrel
  68. dw1305

    FLUVAL LED /Lumens help!

    Hi all, I would definitely get a <"drop checker">, my suspicion would be that you have a <"fairly low level of CO2 addition">, but you can really tell. It does at the moment, you can tell this because your algae and plants are growing and are a nice healthy green colour. At some point one of...
  69. dw1305

    FLUVAL LED /Lumens help!

    Hi all, I tend to use whatever lamps I have to hand, and then I just increase the floating plant cover to more fully utilise the PAR. Because floating plants aren't CO2 limited it is a <"bit different for them">. Personally I'd keep the lights at full power for six or seven hours, you know you...
  70. dw1305

    FLUVAL LED /Lumens help!

    Hi all, You could shorten the photo-period. I wouldn't go under six hours. I really like some floating plants as, they aren't CO2 limited and they naturally grow in bright light conditions. I <"always have floating plants">, other people just use them for the establishment phase. It is a light...
  71. dw1305

    What light range am I in?

    Hi all, Welcome Stuart, I think that is probably the important bit. If you are happy keep on doing what you are doing. Three months is long enough to suggest you have a enough PAR, by now you would be seeing issues if you didn't. You can use more intense lighting with a low tech, you just...
  72. dw1305

    Lighting suggestions

    Hi all, Either that, or some DIY with LED floodlights. @zozo is probably your best bet for some advice. cheers Darrel
  73. dw1305

    New flood light project commin up..

    Hi all, I have two of these in one of the tanks in the lab. and they are fine for low tech. cheers Darrel
  74. dw1305

    Lighting for a 150cm x 60cm x 60cm tank

    Hi all, That would be my suggestion as well. You can get 240V dimmable down-lights in "cool" or "daylight white" and then dim them with a manual dimmer. You don't get the "bells and whistles" you would get with a programmable aquarium LED, but you save hundreds of €s. You can get 1200 x...
  75. dw1305

    Low tech 30 inch deep

    Hi all, Unfortunately it is a recurring theme in the sellers of products for the aquarium. cheers Darrel
  76. dw1305

    Interesting

    Hi all, It is just as good as any other 6W 4000K (cool white) 400 lumen lamp. If you have a luminaire that uses a E14 fitting then it should be fine. There is probably a cheaper one (possibly even at Ikea) with exactly the same spec. There is also 10W version, which is "Standard Edison...
  77. dw1305

    Which T5?

    Hi all, Realistically you can tell when an electronically ballasted tri-phosphor T5 tube needs changing, and that is when it doesn't come on. If it is a "soft start" ballast, and you are only turning the light on and off twice a day, the active life may extend to 40,000 hours, with very little...
  78. dw1305

    Juwel T5 tube manufacturer

    Hi all, I'd be interested in this as well. cheers Darrel
  79. dw1305

    Juwel T5 tube manufacturer

    Hi all, I didn't know that, it would definitely be a lot cheaper. That is right, each electronic ballasts cover a large range of wattage. cheers Darrel
  80. dw1305

    Juwel T5 tube manufacturer

    Hi all, They are actually a <"non-standard length">, so that no ordinary "off the shelf" tube fits. A few other aquatic retailers (<"Iquatics">) sell the compatible length tubes. cheers Darrel
  81. dw1305

    Chihiros ac/dc adapter

    Hi all, You should be able to find one on Amazon etc. The only thing you need to know, other than what you have, is what the output terminal looks like, they are usually 2.1mm or 2.5mm (5.5mm barrel) connector, hopefully some-one will know which one it is. As @Zeus. says it doesn't have to be...
  82. dw1305

    Help with light bulb/fitting choice!

    Hi all, I was going to suggest the MR16 (GU5.3) lamps, but I thought the OP had already bought an E27 fitting. cheers Darrel
  83. dw1305

    Help with light bulb/fitting choice!

    Hi all, You can't really use "watts per gallon" for LEDs, they produce a lot more PAR than a filament lamp would. I'd look at 3 x 10W E27 lamps, ideally 4000 or 6500K, there should be lots of options in dimmable as well as non-dimmable. Non-dimmable will be ~£5 a lamp, dimmable a bit more. I...
  84. dw1305

    Holding /Grow On Tank Lighting

    Hi all, That would definitely be the route I went down for plants that require high humidity. Ferns, Aroids and mosses will all be plants that appreciate lower light intensity as well. If you can cool the air down (by misting or fogging) the relative humidity will rise as an artifact of the...
  85. dw1305

    Holding /Grow On Tank Lighting

    Hi all, I would expect that the humidity is computer controlled via vapor pressure deficit (VPD) measurement, using <"fogging units">, and these would only use a small volume of RO water. The advantages of fog (fine droplets smaller than 20 microns) are that it doesn't leave any residue on the...
  86. dw1305

    Holding /Grow On Tank Lighting

    Hi all, I think it is probably the other way around, the commercial realities of aquatic plant production means that companies grew their plants emersed or via tissue culture flasks. Have a look at: (Originally linked in to <"Microsorum">) Commercial LED grow-bulbs use red (650nm) and blue...
  87. dw1305

    Kessil A80

    Hi all, We have a thread somewhere (found it, <"this one">), but I think the Juwel tubes are halophosphate, presumbly because they are older stock in a non-standard size. There is nothing wrong with T5 lamps, but the future definitely is LEDs. cheers Darrel
  88. dw1305

    Kessil A80

    Hi all, Send them to me. If you have an electronic ballast, in the luminaire, and Triphosphor tubes, <"they do decline a bit">, but in practical terms you can tell when they need changing, it is when they don't come on. It is called "lamp lumen depreciation" or <"lumen maintenance">. cheers...
  89. dw1305

    T5 Osram skylight 880

    Hi all, That one? <"Osram Lumilux T5 HO Fluorescent Tube 1149mm Daylight 54W">, lower colour temperature, so slighly less blue-white. cheers Darrel
  90. dw1305

    Help please! How to light a 4ft x 4ft tank!

    Hi all, They aren't particulalrly attractive, but a <"horticultural T5 luminaire"> would do. cheers Darrel
  91. dw1305

    Juwel Primo 110 with NovoLux 80 LED lighting

    Hi all, Corydoras habrosus or Corydoras panda? cheers Darrel
  92. dw1305

    Big planted tank needs leds.

    Hi all, I'd go for 2 x 4' T5 grow-lights. They aren't pretty, but they are relatively cheap. You can get a "LightWave" (or similar) 4' 4 x 54W T5 unit for about £135, and the replacement tubes are cheap (~£6) to buy. cheers Darrel
  93. dw1305

    Watts per gallon

    Hi all, I still like T5 lamps as well. cheers Darrel
  94. dw1305

    Arcadia T5 LED

    Hi all, I would definitely have some floating plants, the Discus will appreciate them and they mean you don't have the filter as a single point of failure. cheers Darrel
  95. dw1305

    Good light for 30 litre nano

    Hi all, My daughter has a Chihiros A series on her 30cm cube and it is bright enough. cheers Darrel
  96. dw1305

    48" X 15" X 12" WHICH LED LIGHT?? HELP

    Hi all, Have a chat with @zozo, he (Marcel) has been making <"LED light fixtures">. cheers Darrel
  97. dw1305

    LED - White or RGB + Wattage

    Hi all, Have a look at the Chihiros ones that Hinterfeld sell. An <"A" series should do>, but the they offer RGB and higher light options. cheers Darrel
  98. dw1305

    Led Light for Dennerle Scaper 50L (budget)

    Hi all, It is a compact fluorescent (CFL) bulb, so you don't need to change it until it fails, and it won't run very hot. You would need to look at the lamp base to find out how much a replacement would cost (I haven't seen one, but it is probably 4 pin). Have you had a look at the Chihiros...
  99. dw1305

    LED's For 60cm Deep Tank?

    Hi all, I'd really like to know just how industrial these <"LED dimmable 60W linear LED HiBay"> look. So if some-one wants to punt £100? cheers Darrel
  100. dw1305

    Advice: lighting units for 4ft x 2ft x 18.5'' set up

    Hi all, They are fine, the units don't have the finish that you would get from an aquatic fitting but they grow plants fine. I've got these <"8 tube 4' "lightwave" arrays">, with 6500K tubes, in the glasshouse at work. One advantage of a 4' fitting is that the (1149mm) 54W T5 tubes are a...
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