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  1. dw1305

    Cycling with ammonia,seachem prime

    Hi all, I really like a floating plant for <"the establishment phase">. They aren't CO2 limited (they have access to ~415 ppm atmospheric CO2) and this means that they can make use of any extra nutrients. cheers Darrel
  2. dw1305

    Cycling with ammonia,seachem prime

    Hi all, I should have answered this one as well. Our tap water <"is lightly chlorinated"> (about 0.5 ppm Cl2) and that chlorine will rapidly out-gas via "Henry's Law", so if you don't have any livestock you can use chlorinated tap water. The effect it will have on the microbial assemblage is...
  3. dw1305

    Cycling with ammonia,seachem prime

    Hi all, The only time you need to "cycle" a tank with ammonia is if you have a bare tank without any substrate or plants and intend to introduce your fish in "one hit", I'll call it the <"Mbuna scenario">. In this case you are entirely reliant on the micro-organisms in the filter for...
  4. dw1305

    Anyone used the JBL SiO2 test?

    Hi all, It is a combination of factors. Phosphorus is highly mobile within the plant, so the plant can continually shuffle it to the newer leaves. There is also the possibility that PO4--- may become available within the substrate from "insoluble" reserves. How large that reserve would be...
  5. dw1305

    Anyone used the JBL SiO2 test?

    Hi all, That is right, the brick and the laterite are red for exactly the same reason, it is the <"insoluble ferric oxides that cause the colour">. Some very small proportion of that iron might become <"solubilised in anaerobic conditions">. cheers Darrel
  6. dw1305

    RO Water, Remineralizers and pH

    Hi all, The tank will buffer itself to some degree, but you don't need to <"worry about the pH dropping">. The issue is <"with the pH scale">, rather than the water. Buffering and pH are conceptually difficult and most of what you read is based upon a premise that we know isn't true...
  7. dw1305

    RO Water, Remineralizers and pH

    Hi all, That is the <"approach I recommend as well">. Put at its simplest level "the plants (or fish) can't lie". It doesn't sounds as "scientific" as doing lots of water tests etc., but it is an entirely <"valid scientific method"> and really just <"a form of bioassay">. I'd like to be able...
  8. dw1305

    Anyone used the JBL SiO2 test?

    Hi all, I think that is right. Plants can only take up nutrient as ions from solution and there must always be some interchange between substrate and water column. The easiest "nutrient" to remove from the water column is light, if you don't get above LCP then you don't have any algae, but...
  9. dw1305

    RO Water, Remineralizers and pH

    Hi all, I'm not personally a CO2 user, but what should happen is that the pH should remain at the level that gives you a one unit pH drop (~30 ppm CO2) throughout the photoperiod, even though the water will be saturated with dissolved oxygen at the end of the photo-period. You might be...
  10. dw1305

    Anyone used the JBL SiO2 test?

    Hi all, I'd tend to agree with that. It is the "plants you want ("Plants")" and "plants you don't (Algae)" argument, for me <"the bottom line"> is that <"they are all plants">. cheers Darrel
  11. dw1305

    RO Water, Remineralizers and pH

    Hi all, Welcome to UKAPS. If you want to keep the pH lower you can use a mix that doesn't add any dKH. As soon as you add carbonate buffering the pH will rise to ~pH8, due to the <"carbonate ~ CO2 ~ pH equilibrium">. When you reduce that pH (by adding an acid) all that happens is that...
  12. dw1305

    Anyone used the JBL SiO2 test?

    Hi all, I'd go further than that, it is any (and every) water source. It is the combination of persistent skeleton, the <"ubiquity of diatoms"> and <"their huge diversity">, that makes them useful as a <"trophic index">. If they weren't so common they wouldn't be so useful. cheers Darrel
  13. dw1305

    Anyone used the JBL SiO2 test?

    Hi all, They definitely get it from solution in the form of orthosilic acid. Apparently the exact mechanism, is fairly complex and has only been fully described recently. Hildebrand, M et al (2018) "Understanding Diatom Cell Wall Silicification—Moving Forward" Front. Mar. Sci., 5 pp 125 says...
  14. dw1305

    Anyone used the JBL SiO2 test?

    Hi all, I'm not sure you can directly relate the <"silicon (Si) content of the water directly with the growth of diatoms">. If you removed all the orthosilicic acid from the water column it would stop diatom growth, but it would have <"to be all of it">. For me it is back to <"theoretically...
  15. dw1305

    Anyone used the JBL SiO2 test?

    Hi all, Probably a silly question, but might it be the low range phosphate test kit, rather than the silicate test kit? If it was it would account for the blue colour. cheers Darrel
  16. dw1305

    Very High Nitrate Test Results??

    Hi all, You need the <"clone" page"> from the IFC calculator. cheers Darrel
  17. dw1305

    TDS / GH / KH query

    Hi all, That would be my thought as well. cheers Darrel
  18. dw1305

    Very High Nitrate Test Results??

    Hi all, Yes <"I just ignore it">, and use weight and volume interchangeably for dilute solutions. Cold "water" ("dilute solution of salts with H2O as a solvent") is denser, so it is best to have everything at room temperature. Even a salty solution (like <"sea water">) isn't much denser than...
  19. dw1305

    Very High Nitrate Test Results??

    Hi all, It contains 15g of Nitrogen (N). That is 1.5g in 100 mL. multiply both sides by 10 and you get 15g in 1000 mL (one litre). The 1.5% w/v% means there is 15g in the 1000 mL of "TNC complete". Because fresh water has a density of 1 (1 mL weighs 1g), and the TNC contains some salts the...
  20. dw1305

    Rainwater confussion

    Hi all, You could. You don't need anywhere near the 8 -12 dKH <"they suggest">. Because magnesium sulphate heptahydrate (MgSO4.7H2O) "Epsom Salts" and calcium chloride dihydrate (CaCl2.2CO2) are so cheap (and widely available as "food grade") anyway I would use them. The workings for a DIY...
  21. dw1305

    Won't use RO anymore, will some difficult plants gonna to survive ?

    Hi all, If it is been on the roof for a while? It should be fine. The galvanised zinc will have formed a crust of "zinc hydroxycarbonate", which is very resistant to corrosion. If it is a very new roof? It is not ideal, but a lot depends on how soft your rainwater is. It would be fine for me...
  22. dw1305

    Won't use RO anymore, will some difficult plants gonna to survive ?

    Hi all, No, it is fine, a lot of <"serious aquarists use it">. I'm <"pretty risk adverse"> and I've used rain water without any problems since the 1970s. Have a look at <"If it's yellow, let it mellow and RO is the devil">. These are <"three of my five water butts">. cheers Darrel
  23. dw1305

    Won't use RO anymore, will some difficult plants gonna to survive ?

    Hi all, Is rain-water an option? cheers Darrel
  24. dw1305

    RO Water, Remineralizers and pH

    Hi all, A lot of people have soft, alkaline water now. This is because of the addition of sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Sodium hydroxide is a <"strong base">. Probably those in the <"Tropica Easy"> category. cheers Darrel
  25. dw1305

    RO Water, Remineralizers and pH

    Hi all, I think it is probably the same as for fish, most popular plants will grow in hard or soft water. That is why they are popular they tend to grow, rather than die, when you put them in the tank. You are less likely to have issues with nutrient availability in softer water, and it...
  26. dw1305

    RO Water, Remineralizers and pH

    Hi all, Probably start with RO and don't add any carbonate hardness (dKH)? I'd guess @Roland is <"the person you need to talk to">, as he seems to have mastered the art of growing "difficult" (not for him) <"soft water plants">. cheers Darrel
  27. dw1305

    RO Water, Remineralizers and pH

    Hi all, That would be my suggestion, pH is a bit of a movable feast, but conductivity (or TDS) are much more straightforward. If you use a proprietary mix (like "Seachem equilibrium"), or a <"DIY one">, just find the smallest addition that gives you healthy plants (with your usual nutrient...
  28. dw1305

    RO Water, Remineralizers and pH

    Hi all, I don't use RO, but, if you add any dKH, the answer is always going to be ~pH8. This is because it is the pH value is set by the carbonate ~ CO2 ~ pH equilibrium, when CO2 levels are at ~415ppm. From : <Ocean Acidification>. Sea water is carbonate rich and alkaline. Sodium chloride...
  29. dw1305

    Using Peat To Lower Water pH

    Hi all, That is right, unless you live somewhere with <"fairly unusual "water"> ("water" is really a dilute solution of salts with H2O as a solvent) that hardness will be from dissolved limestone (CaCO3) and give 1:1 dGH/dKH. If you start with DI water (H2O) you <"can have any combination...
  30. dw1305

    Household water softener water usability

    Hi all, Because you have the same no. of ions in both cases (Na+ & K+) the difference may be because some ions are <"better at conducting electricity than others"> (just like a copper wire is a better conductor of electricity than an aluminium wire). I was expecting to find a straightforward...
  31. dw1305

    Household water softener water usability

    Hi all, I don't think there should be a difference in the amount of calcium (Ca++) and magnesium (Mg++) ions replaced, but, you will use more potassium (K), than sodium (Na), for the same weight of salt. Basically 25kg of NaCl has the softening potential of 42.5 kg of KCl. You can ignore the...
  32. dw1305

    Using Peat To Lower Water pH

    Hi all, It is back to all the confusing terms again, <"alkalinity"> and <"basicity"> are often used interchangeably, by they are actually slightly different. My guess is that what Diana Walstad actually used alkalinity when she meant basicity. In most natural situation dGH, dKH, alkalinity and...
  33. dw1305

    Using Peat To Lower Water pH

    Hi all, I think you are right, they are both interested in carbonate hardness (dKH). My guess is that they have slightly different reasons for homing in on carbonate hardness as the important factor. In Diana Walstad's case she didn't originally change any water, so she was reliant <"on the...
  34. dw1305

    Household water softener water usability

    Hi all, I got fed up with the very restricted life of electric showers etc with our very hard tap water, and I already used rain-water for the tanks and garden, but I was absolutely amazed how much salt we got through when we got an ion exchange unit. We have a water meter and I should have...
  35. dw1305

    Household water softener water usability

    Hi all, No, it means that the KCl exchanges K+ ions for all three of the cations Na+, Ca++ and Mg++. It is <"Strong Acid Cation Exchange">. Have a look at the Lenntech Resource <"Ion exchange for dummies">. I've found it really useful. Yes, this just due to differing RAMs of sodium (Na) and...
  36. dw1305

    Household water softener water usability

    Hi all, It depends on the fish you keep. As a general rule fish from soft water are much less tolerant of elevated levels of sodium (Na) ions. If you keep <"Lake Tanganyika cichlids"> they come from very ion rich water with a high sodium content. @MirandaB keeps the "Soda Cichlid"...
  37. dw1305

    Household water softener water usability

    Hi all, I think that the differential in price (between NaCl and KCl) is smaller in N. America than in Europe. We have <"some threads">. cheers Darrel
  38. dw1305

    Rainwater confussion

    Hi all, It doesn't rain reliably in the summer so you need more storage than you might imagine. You need to warm it up in the winter, if you want to change more than~10% volume. It can freeze in the butt if it is prolonged cold spell. Other than that it is all "up sides", Free...
  39. dw1305

    Perplexed about extreme TDS readings

    Hi all, Dangerously unstable pH doesn't really occur in very soft water. The pH just <"becomes more variable">. That is definitely what I'd do (and do). I have hard (about 17 dGH/dKH) good quality tap water and our rainwater has some carbonate buffering. cheers Darrel
  40. dw1305

    Perplexed about extreme TDS readings

    Hi all, A lab. that <"has an ICP-MS"> would be able to do it. There are companies that run samples for marine aquarists. Personally I wouldn't be too bothered. I'd just add less salts, watch plant health and change more water until the conductivity value comes down to one where you are happy...
  41. dw1305

    DI Water high pH reading

    Hi all, They are. Have a look at the <"Merck Buffer Calculator">. cheers Darrel
  42. dw1305

    DI Water high pH reading

    Hi all, You can just ignore the pH reading in the DI water. Theoretically the pH should be pH7 when the DI water is fully degassed. I say theoretically, because in practice pH is meaningless in DI water, pH measures the ratio of proton donors (H+) : proton acceptors (OH-) and in pure water you...
  43. dw1305

    Nitrates at Zero?

    Hi all, Perfect, just watch the leaf colour and growth and if the whole plant pales follow @Zeus. 's suggestion and add a bit more KNO3. I only really use leaf colour as an indication of <"when to feed">, I very occasionally <"dip the conductivity meter into the tanks">, but even that is now...
  44. dw1305

    Nitrates at Zero?

    Hi all, Old or new leaves? It <"certainly will">. cheers Darrel
  45. dw1305

    Nitrates at Zero?

    Hi all, I have the potential to test for nitrate (NO3), with an <"ion selective electrode">, but I've pretty much stopped doing it, because using plant leaf colour is a lot more straight forward. So the question is what <"do the plants look like?">, and particularly <"how green are they">? It...
  46. dw1305

    Perplexed about extreme TDS readings

    Hi all, Yes, if you had more calcium (Ca++) in your water it should show up on the dGH test. You will never get a huge build up of Ca++ ions, purely because of <"the limited solubility"> of most calcium containing compounds. Water is fully saturated with Ca++ and HCO3- at about 17 dGH/dKH...
  47. dw1305

    Perplexed about extreme TDS readings

    Hi all, I expect some of it is, but the plants will mop that up and it has been eight months? I've never used any nutrient rich substrates, so I don't have any practical experience of them. That one. cheers Darrel
  48. dw1305

    Perplexed about extreme TDS readings

    Hi all, My guess is that the levels have built up over the 8 months, probably mainly from the excess calcium (Ca++), sodium (Na+), chloride (Cl-) etc the ions that plants don't require or only require in small amounts. cheers Darrel
  49. dw1305

    Perplexed about extreme TDS readings

    Hi all, Welcome Michael, I'm sorry that the links in this contains so much chemistry, but it all takes a bit of unravelling. Not really, pH in carbonate buffered water (water with some dKH) will always end up about pH8, because of the <"CO2~carbonate equilibrium">. If you add more dKH (an H+...
  50. dw1305

    Ammonia test kit and Urea

    Hi all, Yes, I choose "fire" partially <"for that reason">. In the same way that you can mitigate for the risk of fire, you <"can mitigate for the risk of ammonia toxicity">, by having "spare" dissolved oxygen, not having a single point of failure, having plenty of plants in active growth...
  51. dw1305

    Ammonia test kit and Urea

    Hi all, That is the real point for me. It isn't that I'm not interested in levels of ammonia (NH3). I am, mainly because it is a very toxic substance and it is also as an indicator that something has gone very wrong with the tank. Because dissolved ammonia is a bit <"of an abstract concept">...
  52. dw1305

    United unitilities water report.

    Hi all, I'd be <"pretty happy with that"> for the tank, not far from RO (or pure Hawes water) straight out of the tap. I like <"hard water to drink">, so that would be an issue for me. cheers Darrel
  53. dw1305

    Ammonia test kit and Urea

    Hi all, Yes, plenty of plants (ideally with some rooted emergents) and some flow. I haven't tried a Twinstar, so can't really pass comment In terms of gas exchange my preference would always be for an over tank "wet and dry" trickle filter, they are simple and robust. Canister filters are...
  54. dw1305

    Ammonia test kit and Urea

    Hi all, It is <"mainly because of the transitory nature of ammonia/ammonium"> and also because there isn't a safe level of ammonia (NH3). You might also have issues with <"test kits etc"> An ion selective electrode works pretty well, but it is quite an expensive bit of kit, and you still have...
  55. dw1305

    United unitilities water report.

    Hi all, You've done well. My guess (but you don't need to guess) is that most people tap water won't be far different. I'm not a great fan of test kits, but the <"JBL PO4 (sensitive) test kit"> should give you a reasonably accurate test. cheers Darrel
  56. dw1305

    Good containers for storing PH pen calibration solution

    Hi all, It is possible, <"but quite tricky">. We buy them for work, rather than making them up ourselves. They need to be <"buffers">. Chemical buffers are specific combinations of conjugated weak acid and weak base, meaning they aren't as straightforward to make as conductivity standards...
  57. dw1305

    Thoughts on Blackwater Extract products . . .

    Hi all, I think that one looks like Alnus cordata. The Bucephalandra are lovely, but I really like your rounded (granite?) pebbles. cheers Darrel
  58. dw1305

    Thoughts on Blackwater Extract products . . .

    Hi all, That is what a lot of Apistogramma keepers do. Have a look at this thread <"Apistogramma Forums: Current State of my ........">. cheers Darrel
  59. dw1305

    Thoughts on Blackwater Extract products . . .

    Hi all, <"Different things">. Personally I haven't tried Rooibos (or ordinary tea bags), mainly because I have an <"easy to access"> supply of structural leaf litter etc. I'll add in @Lindy, but I'm not sure she visits the forum at the moment. cheers Darrel
  60. dw1305

    Thoughts on Blackwater Extract products . . .

    Hi all, There is a Plec breeder (and Altum Angel Keeper) on Planet Catfish who uses Rooibos. Have a look at <"Orange Peel....."> and <"Making Blackwater....">. cheers Darrel
  61. dw1305

    PH checker

    Hi all, I think generally there is a <"shortage of properly referenced articles within the hobby">. In the case of the measurement of hardness your best bet is probably still <"the Krib article by Larry Frank">. UKAPS has a few threads linked into articles <"about nitrification">, about the...
  62. dw1305

    PH checker

    Hi all, They need calibration before every use, they also need to be turned on for a couple of minutes before you take the the reading. Yes, assuming it is a meter with <"two point calibration"> you need pH7 and pH10 and/or pH4 buffers. <"You can reuse the buffers"> several times, they...
  63. dw1305

    Cambridge tap water ICP-MS results

    Hi all, The simple answer is I don't know and I would have expected that there should be appreciable levels of potassium (K) for that reason. A little bit of digging may have found the answer. The <"Soil Minerals and Plant Nutrition: The Nature Education Knowledge Project"> (which looks a...
  64. dw1305

    Cambridge tap water ICP-MS results

    Hi all, It is <"back to the chalk">. It is very nearly pure CaCO3, you can tell this by the colour, if it had anything else in it the <"white cliffs of Dover"> would be a lot less white. The Chalk was laid down, over a long time period, <"in a deep oceanic basin"> and hasn't really been...
  65. dw1305

    Cambridge tap water ICP-MS results

    Hi all, My guess is that they are actually the same mix, and one of the labels has <"got lost in the powers of ten">. I don't have any reference, but I'd guess it is the "3.0%" that is wrong and it is actually 0.3% Mn. You get a reasonable amount in some hard water, to the extent that they...
  66. dw1305

    Cambridge tap water ICP-MS results

    Hi all, Very useful. As the other have said we aren't likely to have much magnesium (Mg) in our tap water <"for geological reasons">. Some of the confusion has arisen because in the USA many of their limestones have <"undergone dolomitization">. The "dolomitization" link has the relevant maps...
  67. dw1305

    Thoughts on Blackwater Extract products . . .

    Hi all, Yes, Beech (Fagus sylvatica) leaves. Tree roots are fine, look likely to be Oak (Quercus sp.), might be Ash (Fraxinus excelsior) the Oak leaves look like Oak leaves, you've got plenty, so just don't use any that look different. cheers Darrel
  68. dw1305

    Thoughts on Blackwater Extract products . . .

    Hi all, <"Snap">, except <"for the workplace">. cheers Darrel
  69. dw1305

    Thoughts on Blackwater Extract products . . .

    Hi all, You should still be able to pyo Alder cones, Oak, Hornbeam and Beech leaves. Small Oak trees and Beech (or Hornbeam) hedges retain their leaves until the spring. If you find a hedge with brown leaves it will be one or the other. cheers Darrel
  70. dw1305

    Water change temperature

    Hi all, We have a <"few threads about this">. My guess would be that fish that come from the Rio Xingu etc need a more stable temperature. cheers Darrel
  71. dw1305

    Tap water or Rain water??

    Hi all, I keep some <"Daphnia in my barrels">. This won't work if you live somewhere where you get very pure rainwater, mine always has some carbonate hardness. Have a search for <"Daphnia Bioassay">. cheers Darrel
  72. dw1305

    PH checker

    Hi all, You can get <"solid state ISFET pH probes">, but they are quite expensive. I don't recommend pH meters, it isn't that pH isn't incredibly important, it is, but it is <"also quite problematic to measure"> in solutions around pH 7 or with low ionic strength. cheers Darrel
  73. dw1305

    Water changes bad for beneficial bacteria

    Hi all, The best we've got is probably Dr Tim Hovanec's comments in <"Dr Timothy Hovanec's comments about Bacterial supplements"> cheers Darrel
  74. dw1305

    Water changes bad for beneficial bacteria

    Hi all, My guess is that there are a huge diversity of novel ammonia oxidising organisms (AOA and AOB) that we haven't found yet and that the microbial assemblage will be very fine tuned, over time, <"to the conditions in the tank/filter">. This paper <"Sakoula, D., Koch, H., Frank, J. et...
  75. dw1305

    Water changes bad for beneficial bacteria

    Hi all, I'm not trying to obscure the fact that it is an advantage, and I'm still better with plants <"than I am with fish">, having said that a lot of members, who aren't botanists, are a lot better with plants than I am. I think that we have made a differentiation between <"black and white...
  76. dw1305

    Water changes bad for beneficial bacteria

    Hi all, My guess is that autotrophic microorganisms mainly reproduce more slowly then heterotrophic ones, but we don't actually know. <"What do know"> is that most of the ammonia oxidising organisms that we are interested in are Archaea, and that of the bacteria, Nitrospira genus contains some...
  77. dw1305

    Water changes bad for beneficial bacteria

    Hi all, That is the real point, I don't think we are tarring them all with the same brush. I've always advised people to get water parameters from their water company, you can trust them because the water company <"has a dedicated lab."> with analytical equipment and trained staff who can use...
  78. dw1305

    Water changes bad for beneficial bacteria

    Hi all, I never answered this bit, my guess is that you are right and the plants mop up most of the ammonia before it makes it into microbial nitrification. In a non-planted tank you have a few other variables that become more important. The first is the level of dissolved oxygen, if you...
  79. dw1305

    Water changes bad for beneficial bacteria

    Hi all, Yes, <"lots of plants are a prerequisite">. <"Floating plants are best">, because they have access to aerial CO2. Emergent plants would be even better, but more problematic for most people. <"We honestly aren't anti-testing">, the issue is with the accuracy of the testing, not the...
  80. dw1305

    So what is organic wastes?

    Hi all, It will work. They had a bit if a vogue in <"Rift Lake Cichlid keeping circles">, a thread I think we both contributed to. cheers Darrel
  81. dw1305

    Salt Meter

    Hi all, Yes, it is rubbish, the anti caking agents are either magnesium carbonate (MgCO3) or sodium hexaferrocyanide (Na4Fe(CN)6), but neither of the is very soluble, you can also ignore the iodized bit (should there be one), the amount of iodine added is neither here nor there. From <"The...
  82. dw1305

    Test kit for dummies

    Hi all, This is going to seem a strange statement, when the shops are packed with test kits and the advice on many forums it "test, test, test", but I don't think there is. Have a look at <"A fresh look at "> and links, and it will give you a bit more idea of <"where I'm coming from">...
  83. dw1305

    Tetra 6 in 1 test strips

    Hi all, You are right. That is a scientifically inexplicable, and makes me think that only is accurate. cheers Darrel
  84. dw1305

    Salt Meter

    Hi all, It is sort of Apples & Pears again, what @mort is saying is that most hydrometers or refractometers aren't going to work very well in a low specific gravity solution, but you can use a conductivity meter, which I assume are the meters you've been looking at? Because it is such a lot...
  85. dw1305

    Salt Meter

    Hi all, That one. It is a lot of salt. cheers Darrel
  86. dw1305

    RO water in planted aquariums

    Hi all, Yes, you don't really need to know how all the bits line up, I like to know, but I'm also pretty lazy so I actually tend to take <"the route of least resistance"> for my own tanks. @Geoffrey Rea's seems a very good suggestion. Yes, that is about it. Because <"we have very consistent...
  87. dw1305

    RO water in planted aquariums

    Hi all, <"I use it">, it is a cheap option, and adds 1 : 1 dGH & dKH via dissolved limestone (CaCO3). You probably only need to add about 10% tap to give you enough hardness, but I don't have a set addition, I use a conductivity meter to keep me in the <"range I want">. I've not used any of...
  88. dw1305

    Guide to TDS

    Hi all, Pretty conclusive. Because it was citric acid (C₆H₈O₇), you've converted the CaCO3 to <"calcium citrate"> and CO2 (gas). You can just use a small amount of <"cockle/oyster shell chick-grit">, when it is <"fully dissolved just add a bit more">. I've got hard tap water, so I can use...
  89. dw1305

    Guide to TDS

    Hi all, I'll try and link in threads <"that cover all the moving bits">, but it is <slightly problematic> because nearly all the units are derived, and in some cases you are reliant on probability, rather than an empirical value. TDS is "Total Dissolved Solids" It is a measure of all the...
  90. dw1305

    How to handle chlorine in my DIY auto water change?

    Hi all, My guess would be that the method of water change means that the risk from chlorine is relatively small. You are going to have drops with a large surface area to volume ratio, meaning that steep concentration gradient between drop and air (atmospheric Cl2 reads in parts per trillion)...
  91. dw1305

    PH rise in water cup

    Hi all, I'd agree with @Wookii & @Zeus. and I suspect it is just the difference between the CO2 : O2 ratio in tank and glass. In the glass the water is 100% saturated with dissolved oxygen and at equilibrium with atmospheric CO2, in the tank there is either less oxygen or more CO2. That is...
  92. dw1305

    High amount of silicate in tap water

    Hi all, Yes you are, and you should be able to use FeEDTA as <"your chelator">. The problem with iron (Fe) is just keeping it in solution in hard, high pH water. Many ferric (Fe III) iron compounds <"are insoluble"> so if we add an iron salt, like <"iron chloride (FeCl3)">, to the tank the...
  93. dw1305

    High amount of silicate in tap water

    Hi all, I think it is only FeEDDHA that tints the water. FeDTPA should do? Someone will know. I've only ever used FeEDTA, because I use rainwater in the tanks. cheers Darrel
  94. dw1305

    Why is my Ph rising?

    Hi all, That is why I stay away from real blackwater specialist fish now. I use rainwater in the tanks and that picks up enough limestone dust to raise the hardness to 3 - 4 dKH / dGH. Even that minimal amount of hardness means fish like <"Parosphromenus spp">, Dicrossus filamentosus or...
  95. dw1305

    Why is my Ph rising?

    Hi all, That is because the Utility Company use <"sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to raise the pH">. NaOH is a strong base, meaning that it all goes into solution as Na+ and OH- ions, there is no buffering, no residue of undissolved bases, and that means that the <"pH can fall very rapidly"> once you...
  96. dw1305

    Why is my Ph rising?

    Hi all, It is to do with the <"carbonate / CO2 / pH equilibrium">. The pH value is dependent upon the level of atmospheric CO2, and at 400 ppm CO2, the pH value will always be near pH8, when you have <"any reserve of carbonate buffering">. You have three options: Use less tap water (hardness...
  97. dw1305

    Does Magnesium add a secondary chemical?

    Hi all, I could never be a teacher, <"my wife is">, but it would drive me mad. I didn't have a great experience of school (went to a <"comprehensive school in the country"> and nobody wanted to be there, (pupils, their parents, or the teachers), and it would be fair to say I was pretty...
  98. dw1305

    Does Magnesium add a secondary chemical?

    Hi all, I don't actually know much chemistry. I've just the bits I've picked up at work and on the forum. If I have a technical question I have to ask <"some-one who knows"> and can explain it to me in terms <"I can understand">. If you want an analogy I can change the wheels on a car, but I...
  99. dw1305

    Does Magnesium add a secondary chemical?

    Hi all, Yes, it is just down the Relative Molecular Mass (RMM) of the compound, in this case = 246.47 g/mol, which means that there is only ~10% magnesium (RAM 24.3). There is a lot of water, because of the <"water of crystallization">. It is the "7H2O" part of MgSO4.7H2O, which makes "Epsom...
  100. dw1305

    High amount of silicate in tap water

    Hi all, I'd just follow the dosing regime @Zeus. has provided for you, dose TNC at the recommended rate (1 mL per 10 litre per week) and add the extra Epsom Salts and FeEDDHA. cheers Darrel
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