Search results

  1. S

    Pinnatifida help

    Are you inducing a Zn deficiency by dosing Fe? If not, then your experience doesn't actually contradict anything. Key word is induced. My experiments. Do you have a source that shows -K results in pinholes in mature leaves other than taking the symptoms of certain terrestrial plants and...
  2. S

    Stable CO2

    U just contradicted yourself. Plants don't care AND the chemical pathways are contained within the plant. Thus, you're suggesting that the 'chemical pathways' are separate from the plant which is impossible. Analogy, your brain doesn't care if your stomach is full but your stomach does. Thus...
  3. S

    Pinnatifida help

    No. This is WRONG. Potassium deficiency does not appear as pinholes in mature leaves in aquatic plants. This may be true in specific terrestrial plants, but most definitely not in submerged aquatic plants. The pinholes in Hygrophila's in general are likely an induced zinc deficiency from...
  4. S

    lilaeopsis novea-zealandia should I prune before planting?

    The emergent leaves will senesce on their own after a couple of weeks once it's been planted. Trimming it off prior to planting will result the plant taking longer to adapt to submerged growth as it can't use the nutrients stored in those leaves.
  5. S

    Stable CO2

    It's a common myth that CO2 concentrations must be stable at the start of the photoperiod to the end. Plants do not care. And BBA is not the direct result of "unstable CO2", another myth.
  6. S

    1 Year On and Many Fish Deaths

    The health or disease of the fishes are not likely the result of excessive CO2. Much more likely, there are problems with the water quality that indirectly led to the health/disease problem. Over-fertilization of heavy metals can be one possible reason. Poisons/toxins in the water are another...
  7. S

    Iron Dosing

    Caution. There is a mass misunderstanding of iron in aquaria which is based on outdated experiments. The old experiments used Fe sulfate which oxidized and precipitated out of solution quickly. Thus, it needed to be added in higher concentrations and in more frequency. However, once chelated Fe...
  8. S

    Plant leaf getting hols and melting

    What is the GH/KH and pH range of the water?
  9. S

    Plant leaf getting hols and melting

    Usually, those symptoms appear on older leaves which is why I'm confused. The chlorotic holes in new leaves are not a symptom of -N or -K in Hygrophila's. What kind of substrate is Tropica? Is it volcanic ash or natural soil? Does it provide nutrients? Do you have copper pipes that supply your...
  10. S

    Plant leaf getting hols and melting

    Are these holes on the older growth? Do you have a wider tank shot?
  11. S

    ALL IN ONE ferts mix problem

    If u need to dose phosphates to inhibit the algae, all it's doing is precipitating the metals out of solution. The solution is to dose less. What are the nutrient concentrations, out of curiosity?
  12. S

    Algae I'm not sure how to get rid of...

    Yes, there's way too much Fe. Plants absorb chelated metals but the amount of excessive Fe prevents their utilization. A pH above neutral will result in metals becoming unavailable. The more alkaline, the more unavailable. As the metal becomes unchelated, it will quickly precipitate out of...
  13. S

    Oily surface scum on new tank - reducing light

    The oily surface scum is a biofilm caused by the nutrients in the water. If the plants aren't using those nutrients, bacteria will readily use it. I notice that the plants are deficient in key nutrients and that can result in a lack of uptake of nutrients.
  14. S

    Does excess co2 inhibit plant growth?

    "Excess" CO2 can inhibit plant growth but it does so indirectly. If the water is poorly buffered, and there are materials that are high in heavy metals, the very low pH can cause these metals to release in excess and can cause toxicity in many plants.
  15. S

    Algae I'm not sure how to get rid of...

    You're toxing your plants with too much Fe which is inducing a Zn deficiency. The high pH compounds this problem as the metals become unavailable.
  16. S

    Deficiency advice

    That's an excessive amount of fertilizers dosed daily. Most of that likely will not be used by plants.
  17. S

    Deficiency advice

    Are the chlorotic holes on the old leaves? If so, then it's -Zn and likely induced. Excess Fe can induce it, so can high phosphate concentrations. What are the actual nutrient dosages? This symptom is NOT -K.
  18. S

    Increase phosphates to combat GDA

    The main reason increasing phosphates reduces or inhibits the growth of GSA and other algae is by precipitating metals that these algae require for growth. Thus, there is likely an excess of heavy metals in the water.
  19. S

    Losing the Battle to Staghorn/Red Algae

    The - before the element means deficiency. A + means excess or toxicity. So -B means boron deficiency. +Fe means iron toxicity.
  20. S

    Losing the Battle to Staghorn/Red Algae

    From the numerous symptoms that are observable from the picture, the water is most likely hard, likely very high Ca and very low B. L. "red" - sides of leaves curl heavily under which is a symptom of -B. -B can be induced with very high Ca concentrations. Crypts - leaf margins are wavy which is...
  21. S

    BGA and other stuff

    I would strongly advise you reconsider your fertilization method.
  22. S

    Slow growth of plants

    So what is the actual photoperiod? Does the tank get ambient light in the morning afternoon or is it solely from the artificial lights?
  23. S

    Slow growth of plants

    What is being dosed? What's in the Brighty Mineral? How much Ca and Mg is in the water?
  24. S

    Plant deficiency and melting plants ...

    Are you adding too much Fe? What's the amount of Fe relative to all the other nutrients?
  25. S

    Anubius & Alternanthera Reineckii Deficiency?

    What exactly are you dosing? Be specific with the nutrient concentrations. What are the water parameters? From the symptoms, old leaves losing color, developing algae/GSA, deteriorating, it's a sign of a couple of possible related nutrient disorders. Lack of Zn or excess phosphate can cause...
  26. S

    Plant deficiency and melting plants ...

    What is the photoperiod (the time when plants receive light including incidental light from the daytime?) Excessive photoperiods can cause a lot of problems that appear to be nutrient-related disorders bc without enough sleep, plants cannot function properly.
  27. S

    Twinstar..what is it?

    The Twinstar is simply an electrolysis device that splits H2O into H2 and O2 gas. (Ozone is also created but the amount strongly depends on the anode/cathode material.) The reason it appears to limit algae growth is specifically bc increased oxygen concentrations allow for aerobic microbial...
  28. S

    Alternanthera reineckii Falling to bits !!!

    The picture shows numerous problems with multiple plants. AR: shortened internodes, small new leaves and cupped, lower leaves dropped Rotala: older leaves oxidative dmg (necrotic spots), downward curling Java fern: undulated leaf margins The shortened internodes and small leaves, along with...
  29. S

    Alternanthera reineckii Falling to bits !!!

    Picture of the growth can help diagnose the problem.
  30. S

    How much PO4 daily ??

    Plants will never use that much P. Excess phosphate can induce micronutrient deficiencies by precipitating the metals.
  31. S

    Reconstituters....

    Nickel sulfate. It's very easy to OD when you're dosing concentrations so low. I don't recommend anyone randomly buys individual metal salts unless they know and understand how to make accurate weight measurements, knows how to store them safely, and have some basic understanding of chemistry bc...
  32. S

    Reconstituters....

    CSM does not have any. I was running my nutrient experiments recently when I decided to dose some Ni (concentration unknown) and the same day, plants started pearling with no other changes. Drop checker turned from dark green to deep blue indicating the absorption of CO2. The only N source was...
  33. S

    Iron deficiency with profito

    Profito is Fe sulfate, it's not chelated. Regarding the condition of the Bacopa, there are numerous issues observed. Cellular dmg/deteriorating leaves, leaves bend downward, algae covered leaves, and chlorosis. These symptoms do not suggest -Fe as -Fe would only present itself as...
  34. S

    Reconstituters....

    Where's the Ni in this mix? It's absolutely required. The Fe is excessive relative to Mn and that much excess can induced deficiencies of other metals such as Cu.
  35. S

    Reconstituters....

    I'm currently doing experiments with Cu. I wasn't able to control for Cu from the tap water before but now I'm using Seachem Cuprisorb to remove it. (I have copper plumbing.) I'm not very certain but the polysperma side margins curling up and folding over may be a symptom of -Cu, either genuine...
  36. S

    Excess potassium problems

    The primary mechanism is photooxidative stress. High light intensities increase metabolism but the heavy metals results in oxidative stress that the plant physiology cannot deal with. As a result, plants suffer from toxicity. Analogy: drinking alcohol. At low amounts, your liver can...
  37. S

    Reconstituters....

    (I don't know what's with this site but it takes ages for it to load, or not load at all. I literally spent 30 minutes just trying to get the page to load correctly and it still isn't. And replying to your PM is near impossible rn.) Fe gluconate precipitates and/or oxidizes very quickly. You...
  38. S

    Excess potassium problems

    At low light intensities, nutrients can be wildly excessive bc plants grow slower. Thus, even under toxic concentrations, they won't show any symptoms. However, if the light intensity were very high, toxicity symptoms would show immediately. I'm speaking generally, not directly about the...
  39. S

    Excess potassium problems

    He genuinely doesn't know the difference. He's implicated such numerous times over the years in discussions on various forums. This is how he created EI, bc he misunderstood nitrogen for nitrate, phosphorus for phosphate, when reading the Hoagland's solution concentrations, which he has stated...
  40. S

    Excess potassium problems

    On the German forums where multiple members tested potassium many years ago, they all noticed that K builds up to excessive amounts if using potassium nitrate as the sole N source. They concluded that potassium isn't required in such high amounts that EI dosing suggests*. From this, they stopped...
  41. S

    Excess potassium problems

    One of the problems is that excess K interferes with Mg uptake. In crop science literature, ideal Mg:K ratio is 1:1. This allows both minerals to be absorbed without competition. If you're dosing excessive amounts (from KNO3, K2SO4, GH booster) the ratio skews towards K and an induced Mg...
  42. S

    Substrate toxicity no more!

    You make false assumptions. I've tried it and killed all my shrimp and snails, and half my fish in the process. Remaining fish suffered from obvious symptoms of heavy metal poisoning. EI toxicity to both plants and animals is well established in the scientific literature long before EI ever...
  43. S

    Substrate toxicity no more!

    Clearly spoken by someone who has neither done the experiments or read the scientific literature. Pls do a thorough literature search and you will see that your beliefs are not scientifically supported. Really? So moderators and other members berating and flaming an honest member asking for...
  44. S

    Leaves turning glassy and transparent (New Pics Added)

    Touché. Being respectful and nice can get you farther than being aggressive and asinine. You aren't the only one so you're in good, or bad, company. And these are mods and admins to boot.
  45. S

    Leaves turning glassy and transparent (New Pics Added)

    It's interesting how confirmation bias plays out on a daily basis. It even blinds us to things directly in front of our eyes: http://www.ukaps.org/forum/threads/mutiple-issues-with-plants.38587/ http://www.ukaps.org/forum/threads/plant-issue.38853/...
  46. S

    My red plants aren't red

    The plants probably don't even use more than 10ppm/week.
  47. S

    My red plants aren't red

    Oh, it's probably the bulb you're using, NA Green. It's very high in green and low in red. Thus, it's not likely to produce much anthocyanins. You should use their other bulb which is much more even with the spectra.
  48. S

    My red plants aren't red

    Can you take a closeup photo of the plants you are having problems with? Also, plants don't use anywhere near 30ppm of potassium a week. Almost all of it is being wasted.
  49. S

    My red plants aren't red

    A picture of the setup would help as would specific dosing regime.
  50. S

    Leaves turning glassy and transparent (New Pics Added)

    It's not a comparison nor was it a promotion of ADA products. It's examples that contradict the advice that is given. If you believe that CO2 must be at saturation before lights to prevent strange things from happening, then why do tanks that aren't at saturation grow fine without strange...
  51. S

    Leaves turning glassy and transparent (New Pics Added)

    It's not complicated at all. If you think throwing everything at them and letting nature take its course is "the basics", then you'll end up having problems with growing plants. However, they attribute the problems to deficiencies. This is all due to the misunderstanding of the concept of...
  52. S

    Leaves turning glassy and transparent (New Pics Added)

    What kind of difference are you looking for? If you want fast growth rates, then having a high concentration of CO2 prior to lights on and during the photoperiod will help. So, too, can increasing light intensity and duration. However, if you don't want fast growth rates, then it's not...
  53. S

    Leaves turning glassy and transparent (New Pics Added)

    Is it really true that plants need max CO2 during the initial stage of photosynthesis? So why does ADA turn CO2 on at the same time that lights turn on? Why does ADA's tanks have a huge fluctuation of CO2 throughout the photoperiod? And why doesn't ADA's tanks have plant problems or other...
  54. S

    What exactly causes BBA? Part 2 - Bacterial imbalance

    When I dosed K, I dosed because I thought there was a deficiency/low concentration. It was only after a few weeks that BBA started gradually disappearing off the walls. I have no idea why this occurred but the only thing different was the single potassium dosage. Another thing to mention, it...
  55. S

    Leaves turning glassy and transparent (New Pics Added)

    Why would you recommend turning the CO2 on earlier? Do you have any reason to do so? How would you justify this course of action? And what do you mean by "plants do strange things"? What strange things occur with a lack of carbon? Explaining your reasoning would provide valuable insight...
  56. S

    Leaves turning glassy and transparent (New Pics Added)

    Do you know the reason for turning on the CO2 before lights on? Do you also know that it's unnecessary to do so? You could turn it on an hour after lights on, or not turn it on at all. Plants will be still be fine. Unless there are toxic concentrations of heavy metals in the water.
  57. S

    Leaves turning glassy and transparent (New Pics Added)

    There will be a difference between acute and chronic toxicity. There are also other variables which can affect it such as the substrate with high CEC. High CEC substrates will adsorb metal cations quickly upon contact. However, over time, these adsorption sites will diminish until it cannot...
  58. S

    Leaves turning glassy and transparent (New Pics Added)

    There is indeed a concentration of iron that causes toxicity. Chelated iron and other metals are much less toxic than their free species. However, the hydroponics guy does not dose EI levels of micronutrients; he's not dosing 5ppm of Fe from CSM+B. Also note, in hydroponics, plants receive...
  59. S

    Leaves turning glassy and transparent (New Pics Added)

    If you have hard water, which is common in the UK, then it's much less likely. However, do you know what a toxicity looks like? One of these leaves suffered from a toxicity. Can you tell which one? Now if all the leaves were this size, would you even think something is wrong or would you...
  60. S

    Leaves turning glassy and transparent (New Pics Added)

    Fertz do not degrade. EI dosing of micros can and will cause toxicity and very easily if dosed at recommended levels using CSM+B to supplement all trace elements using Fe target as proxy. This is especially true if water is soft.
  61. S

    Leaves turning glassy and transparent (New Pics Added)

    That's not a magnesium deficiency, nor does it look like iron. It's definitely a toxicity and an induced deficiency by the look of the H. tripartita and Rotala. The leaf burn may also be a toxicity. It is definitely NOT a deficiency.
  62. S

    Leaves turning glassy and transparent (New Pics Added)

    Probably micronutrient toxicity. Don't know which one but it's not Fe, one of the other trace elements.
  63. S

    What exactly causes BBA? Part 2 - Bacterial imbalance

    Yes, 0.1ppm x2-3 per week. Since I dose when I see chlorosis, then Fe is probably taken up almost completely before I dose again. I have no iron test to confirm but the concentration should not be more than 0.2ppm on any given day of the week.
  64. S

    What exactly causes BBA? Part 2 - Bacterial imbalance

    http://plantstress.com/Articles/toxicity_i/Metal_toxicity.pdf Also, according to this paper regarding metal toxicities in plants, specifically Mn, Zn, and Cu, it describes the symptoms of manganese toxicities on plants such as damaged leaf margins, necrosis, and tissue damage of older leaves...
  65. S

    What exactly causes BBA? Part 2 - Bacterial imbalance

    Should but it may not actually do so. The only way to find out is to reset the tank by dosing multiple massive WCs and then wait and observe the plants for deficiencies. Then dose and observe but only in minute concentrations. Currently, I'm dosing 0.3ppm of Fe/week from FeDTPA:CSM+B at a 2:1...
  66. S

    What exactly causes BBA? Part 2 - Bacterial imbalance

    This is incorrect. Potassium deficiency does not necessarily cause staghorn to grow on leaves. What I thought was a potassium deficiency was actually a micronutrient toxicity. Thus, it's a micronutrient toxicity that damage leaf margins which results in staghorn and BBA. Adding extra...
  67. S

    Mutiple issues with plants

    I'd like to redact my statement about EI concentrations not providing enough potassium. It certainly does. If there are pinholes in the older leaves of Hygrophila's and dosing EI levels of potassium, then these holes are NOT a potassium deficiency but a micronutrient toxicity. This probably...
  68. S

    Plant issue ?

    Definitely not a CO2 issue. Low CO2 levels will not cause this kind of growth unless the water is high in heavy metals to begin with. Low CO2 means low uptake of the metals which results in a higher concentration of them in the water. This higher concentration causes toxicity, which can...
  69. S

    Plant issue ?

    New growth should be normal. Old growth will be permanently deformed. I'd wait until new growth is long enough, then snip and replant the top healthy growth, and compost the damaged part.
  70. S

    how to...hygrophilia Pinnatifida

    I would do a very large WC (>90%) to reduce the micronutrient concentrations. Then observe plant health. Only when you see the first signs of deficiency should you dose the deficient nutrient once. Then wait and see how long it takes to become deficient in that nutrient. This will tell you a...
  71. S

    how to...hygrophilia Pinnatifida

    What problems are you having with this plant? Are you dosing fertilizers and what kind? This plant is sensitive to micronutrient toxicity if dosing too much.
  72. S

    Plant issue ?

    You're dosing too many micros. It's a micronutrient toxicity. Look at the Rotala in the back right: same issue. Do multiple, large water changes and a vacuum if possible to reduce trace elements.
  73. S

    Opinion on my layout

    It's not very good looking. The left and right are too different to create uniformity.
  74. S

    Please help me with my plants deficiency

    Be very careful using EI suggested dosing as it's very easy to dose the micronutrients in excess and cross into the toxicity range. You'll know it's a toxicity when the plants appear to have more than one deficiency symptom simultaneously. What exactly are you dosing? More pictures would help...
  75. S

    Dwarf hair grass browning

    Emergent leaves will die off.
  76. S

    how to...hygrophilia Pinnatifida

    No roots? Probably a lack of phosphate.
  77. S

    Mutiple issues with plants

    Relocate one of the inlet pipes to the back right corner to help with flow. Did all of the Bolbitis die off?
  78. S

    How much copper is to much?

    It depends on the dosage. Dose too high, kill them all. LD50 is inappropriate to determine safe levels. Toxic effects will still occur and many times lower concentration.
  79. S

    Build My LED (company of that name)

    Oh, you mean you are absolutely certain that there's a custom tax that must be paid, not that the tax is 100% of the price of the fixture. That's good to know then. I'd check with the customs tax to see what the rate is.
  80. S

    Parrot's feather? Or another (safe!) milfoil?

    It develops bladders if nitrates (and possibly other nutrients) are limited. If nitrates are abundant, it doesn't need to develop bladders to capture food. Also, not all Utricularia's are rootless. Some species do indeed develop a rooting system.
  81. S

    Deficiency h. polysperma

    Looks like K.
  82. S

    Algae id in new tank please

    Typical of low O2. Increase O2.
  83. S

    What exactly causes BBA? Part 2 - Bacterial imbalance

    I don't think that. If they are deficient in micros, then that affects growth. If they aren't deficient, then it's not an issue. I was only referring to plants that are deficient. So if you've been dosing traces, then it's not likely necessary to increase dosing.
  84. S

    What exactly causes BBA? Part 2 - Bacterial imbalance

    I've stopped dosing traces until it gets down to acceptable levels. Certain plants are much more tolerant of high micronutrients, such as ferns and Anubias. Others, such as Rotalas, are not. However, even though ferns and Anubias are more tolerant, fish and shrimp are not and have died or...
  85. S

    Build My LED (company of that name)

    I'm in the US. What does 100% customs tax mean? Is that 100% of the price of the fixture? So if the fixture is 200 pounds, the customs tax is also 200 pounds!?!?!?
  86. S

    Mutiple issues with plants

    I really don't recommend lowering light levels. If anything, increasing light levels will improve the growth of plants. Plants can survive months under sub-optimum light levels, but if they don't get more, they will eventually die. You already have enough CO2 and overdosing fertz can lead to...
  87. S

    What exactly causes BBA? Part 2 - Bacterial imbalance

    Just a warning: I just had my water tested and even though I was dosing EI daily, it showed that even at these levels, I was massively overdosing micros. Copper was ridiculously high as was iron. Rates of uptake are far lower than was assumed. Someone else also had the water tested and it...
  88. S

    Build My LED (company of that name)

    If you do decide to get a BML fixture, I strongly suggest the DIY spectrum or the horticulture Solar Max fixture, but these only come in limited size lengths. The reason why is because the LED selection is much closer to sunlight and provides somewhat even spectrum from 400-700nm, which makes...
  89. S

    Parrot's feather? Or another (safe!) milfoil?

    Not a millfoil. It looks like a Utricularia.
  90. S

    What exactly causes BBA? Part 2 - Bacterial imbalance

    BBA occurs mostly on K-deficient plants even though there are very few plants in the tank. Something about potassium deficiency results in BBA growing all over. However, the plants that have been infected will still have BBA. I can't get rid of it unless I remove the affected leaves.
  91. S

    What exactly causes BBA? Part 2 - Bacterial imbalance

    Yeah, it gradually disappears. Even the BBA that grows on the walls of the tank disappear and I don't even touch it.
  92. S

    What exactly causes BBA? Part 2 - Bacterial imbalance

    I get BBA in my non-CO2, low-light tanks all the time and have the Anubias, Bolbitis, and Java ferns covered in BBA to prove it. What does appear to prevent it from growing in these tanks are regular fertilizing of potassium and micros.
  93. S

    Lighting Dilemma

    Choose the one with the most even light spectrum divided equally between the three RGB color regions.
  94. S

    Problems with sagittaria subulata

    Use more light.
  95. S

    ada power sand

    What is it? I have old ones but it doesn't appear to do anything other than provide more water through.
  96. S

    What exactly causes BBA? Part 2 - Bacterial imbalance

    Archaea also fix nitrogen so it isn't just bacteria.
  97. S

    What exactly causes BBA? Part 2 - Bacterial imbalance

    ADA no longer recommends this. They dose the necessary nutrients such as potassium and micronutrients to improve growth and plant health during the transition period.
  98. S

    What exactly causes BBA? Part 2 - Bacterial imbalance

    So under sunlight, the plants are most likely carbon-limited, as well as nutrient-limited. Can this be replicated in our aquariums? Is it these limitations that prevent such growth in our tanks or is it something else? I've done this with Lilaeopsis mauritiana and no dosing. No algae and the...
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